Outline and Evaluate the relationship between the workplace and stress
Many people believe work affects their health. Defining what is stressful in the workplace is not easy, because individuals react quite differently to the same situation. However, some common factors have been found in many workers that cause them stress and in some cases lead to illness. These include the level of control they have (low control = stress), the amount of workload they have (high workload = stress) and role conflict (getting the work life balance right).
The job-strain model of workplace stress suggests that the workplace creates stress and illness in two ways, through high workload (putting pressure ...view middle of the document...
This demonstrates that it is the type of workload that influences whether or not it will stress a worker not just the quantity.
Schaubroeck has shown that some workers are less stressed when they have little control, because they enjoy not having responsibility. This was measured directly by taking saliva samples and testing for immune system functioning (some people had higher immune system functioning even though they had low job control).
The validity of research into workplace stress might have been compromised by the use of questionnaires that may not refer to the stressors the individual employee experiences or is concerned about. Interviews would be better, because they would enable each interviewee to discuss those aspects of the job that stress them, and may usefully identify stressors the researchers had not considered. For example, the Marmot study relied on the job strain model which indicated that high workload is stressful – however, Shultz took a different view by observing work under-load ie. a lack of creativity. He studied 1600 workers in Europe and found that those who had too little work to do suffered low job satisfaction and therefore stress.
Kivimaki looked at the consequences of CHD in association to work stress in cross- cultural research carried out in Europe, US and Japan. He carried out a meta-analysis of 14 studies and 83,000 people and found that...