Cancer now is one of major problems that trouble human. is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells cannot do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell .Topic of my essay is about bone cancer.I decide to write this in topic because it involved elderly people that I they’re suffering from this disease. Make me interest in this disease. From now I show you what is osteosarcoma, symptom, diagnosis,Its cause and the possible ways to treat
Osteosarcoma is also known as osteogenic ...view middle of the document...
For example, if osteosarcoma spreads to the lungs (metastases), the cancer cells in the lungs are osteosarcoma cells. The disease is metastatic osteosarcoma, not lung cancer, and it is treated as osteosarcoma.
(1)&(2) Simple picture to show how osteosarcoma is looks like. And the position of tumor.
Symptom of Osteosarcoma
Many patients first complain of pain that may be worse at night, and may have been occurring for some time. If the tumor is large, it can appear as a swelling. The affected bone is not as strong as normal bones and may fracture with minor trauma (a pathological fracture)Suffer may have this following symptom :
* Bone fracture (may occur after what seems like a routine movement)
* Bone pain
* Limitation of motion
* Limping (if the tumor is in the leg)
* Pain when lifting (if the tumor is in the arm)
* Tenderness, swelling, or redness at the site of the tumor
Cause of Osteosarcoma
According by the present information Scientists have identified some genetic mutations that cause some inherited forms of osteosarcoma. Specifically, people with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome have a high risk of developing certain kinds of cancer, including osteosarcoma. This disease is caused by inherited mutations that turn off the p53 tumor suppressor gene that normally controls the growth of cells.However the cause is still unclear.
People with inherited defects in the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene also have a higher risk of developing retinoblastoma, an eye cancer, and osteosarcoma. When the Rb gene is mutated, or changed, it can no longer control cell growth and tumors form as a result.
Here are the list of involved gene information
- It is known that patients affected by hereditary RB have 1000 times the incidence of osteosarcoma compared with the general population. Sporadic osteosarcomas show alteration of the RB gene in 70 % of cases.
- Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 13q, the site of gene RB is present in approximately 60 % to 70 % of osteosarcomas. And recently LOH at the RB locus has been proposed as a poor prognostic factor in osteosarcoma.
- Abnormalities of the RB gene are commonly seen in osteosarcoma but other components of the RB-pathway gene can be subject to genetics alterations : INK4, p16, CDK4 and cyclin D1. The INK4A gene located on chromosome 9p21 is inactivated in about 10 % of osteosarcomas. Loss of p16 expression is also found in 10 % to 15 % of tumors and is correlated with decreased survival in pediatric osteosarcomas.
- Amplification of the 12 q13-15 chromosomal region which contains both CDK4 and MDM2 is seen in about 10% of osteosarcomas.
- Inactivation of the p53 pathway is central event in many tumors including osteosarcoma. The p53 gene is located on chromosome 17p13, chromosomal region frequently altered in cytogenetic analysis. Abnormalities of p53 were identified in 50 % of cases. p53 mutations are more often missense type. Alterations of p53...