Running Head: Conceptual Synthesis
Conceptual Synthesis of Three Frameworks of Organizational Theory
Dr. Melinda Mangin
June 1, 2014
An organization is a system where groups of people are channeled into achieving certain goals. Organizations are social units and exist in every aspect of the modern world for a variety of purposes. Each organization is unique and differs from one another in many ways; however, environment, strategy and goals, formal organization, informal organization, work technology, and people are essential ingredients of all ...view middle of the document...
The organization structure is well-defined and affected by bureaucracy, authority, and standardization. The entire process in the organization is oriented to achieve specific goals. Scott and Davis (2007) argue that even technically impossible goals can be accomplished with this system as long as rational methods are followed.
Having specific goals in place enables an organization to take a structured and sequential approach in decision-making process and helps the leaders to develop precise solutions to well-defined problems. Thus, it guides the organization in using resources and determining how to hire and assign individuals for specific roles. Goal specificity allows these decisions to be made based on scientifically obtained data and reduces the chance of error and subjectivity. In addition to goal specificity, formalization plays an important role in rational-technical model, as it allows decision makers to predict the behavior of the individuals by regulating it. Moreover, if formal processes are utilized in regulating the relationships among individuals, uncertainty or confusion would not emerge down the road while assigning different roles to individuals.
For example, from the standpoint of the rational-technical perspective my school district appears to be an organization that has a strong emphasis on teacher accountability. The performance of each teacher is to be monitored by another professional to determine whether he or she fulfills his or her specified responsibility. Principles and supervisors have the authority to make decisions about teachers based on formal observations, student growth objectives, and state-wide exam results. If a teacher cannot meet the expectations as outlined in the job description, the district may fire him or her, and hire another one who is more qualified and capable for that particular job. Also, every department has its own short term and long term goals that are congruent with the mission statement of the district, so everybody knows what they are supposed to finish up at certain points during the course of the year without experiencing any uncertainty. Similarly, if there is an opening in the district, no confusion or competition is expected to occur in regard to what process to follow for hiring, because it is delineated on the staff handbook. The posting is simply put on the district’s website and qualified candidates are called for interview. The district also follows a rational-technical path on its daily operations. Elementary and secondary schools follow their respective bell schedules to coordinate instructional periods and lunch times for each grade level.
The second system that Scott and Davis (2007) recommend in examining organizations is natural-social system. An organization in this system is viewed as “collectives whose participants are pursuing multiple interests, both disparate and common, but who recognize the value of perpetuating the organization as an...