QUESTION :What are the main foundations of Organization Development? What are the stages of OD as suggested by Kurt Lewin and subsequently modified by Lippitt, Watson &Westley?
1) FOUNDATION OF OD
(a) The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.
(b) Values have always been an integral part of OD package. OD values and assumption developed from research and theory, by behavioral scientist and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic and democratic.
(d) The knowledge base ...view middle of the document...
Participation in OD is not restricted to the top managers but it is extended throughout the organization. Increased participation and empowerment has always been the fundamental values of this field .OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase participation and involvement by the leaders and members.
(iv) Teams and team work: The team and team work are the foundation of OD.A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of an organization. To be an effective team ,the teams must manage their culture, processes, systems and relationships.
(v) Parallel learning structures: These are the specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding the change. It helps people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization, engage in genuine enquiry and experimentation and initiate needed changes. In most basic form it consists of steering committee and a number of working group that study and make recommendation for improvement and monitoring the change efforts. Additional refinement of this structure may includes idea group, action group or implementation group.
(vi) A normative-reeducative strategy of changing: People are social beings and will adhere to cultural norms and values. Change is based on redefining and reinterpreting existing norms and values, and developing commitments to new ones. The normative-re-educative strategies based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behavior, and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones.
(vii) Applied behavioral science : Behavioral science draws from a number of different fields and theories including industrial psychology, organizational psychology, industrial sociology, communication, cultural anthropology, administrative theory, organizational behavior, and political science.Organizational development is considered as both a field of applied behavioral science that focuses on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. It uses components of behavioral sciences and studies in the fields of sociology, psychology, and theories of motivation, learning, and personality to implement effective organizational change and aid in the development of employees.
(viii) Action research: The action research model is data based problem solving method. It replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlines most OD activities. It includes three processes :
• Data collection
• Feedback of the data
• Action planning based on data
2) KURT LEWIN THREE STAGE MODEL OF CHANGE
(a)Kurt Lewin change theory and Lewin's three step model is very much a significant part of...