Organisational Change Management
Organisational Change Management
Currently, the economic pressures and changing political priorities allow the need for organisational change in the public and private bodies (Bauer, 2008). However, carrying out changes in an organisation is a complex process that can lead to negative and positive outcomes, thus it is important to concentrate on accessible evidence that would make the process effective and efficient. Change is considered a multi-level phenomenon. There is a gap on the literature regarding to management change in administration perceptive. Management literatures provide a number of cases of ...view middle of the document...
One of the most sorts out perspectives of managing organisational change is called ‘planned approaches’ to change developed by Lewin. In the literature, the Lewin argues that change should involve three stages: doing away with current behaviour, making a decision to move to a new behaviour and adapting to a new behaviour. These three steps have been used for years to understand the concept of organisational change.
Over the years, the theory has been reviewed and changes made to divide the stages into more specific processes. For instance, a four stage process incorporating assessment, planning, action and incorporation was developed from the three stage processes by Bullock and Batten. However, the three stage processes for understanding organisational change by Lewin was criticised for being grounded on small samples and its assumptions that organisations make decision under perpetual conditions that can be changed and planned for. Due to the many criticisms, the theory was replaced by another concept of organisational change called ‘emergent approach’. The emergent approach to organisation change considers change as a rapid and unpredictable outcome that cannot be controlled from the top down. The approach also considers change as an alerting process where businesses respond to environmental changes. The emergent approach is focused on facilitating for change than giving planned steps for initiatives.
A number of proponents of the emergent approach suggest a layout of actions organisations should follow in maximizing the possibility of change being successful (Rusaw, 2007). Such actions include, empowering employees, developing visions, establishing strong leadership etc. (Fernandez and Rainey, 2006). An assumption developed for the emergent approach is that, for an organisation to respond to a change, the managers must critically understand the structure of the organisation, its strategies, culture etc. Understanding all this enables the managers to select the best approach to change and factors that may create barriers in the process. However, the emergent theory has faced a number of critics. Critics question the usefulness of action sequences, and their bids to inimitable organisational contexts (Holbeche, 2009). Some theorists suggest the implementation of a more ‘contingency’ and ‘situational’ approach, disputing that the productivity of an organisation depends heavily on situational variables. However, these theories have been criticised for exaggerating the role of situational variables and establishing that there lack a role for managers of business organisations.
The Psychological Contract
The psychological contract was established by a theorist called Rousseau as a belief based on the terms of a relationship between parties. Within the environment of work, psychological contract refers to the assumed balance between how a worker is treated by the leader, and what he or she puts in to the work. In addition to provision of...