Organelles And Their Functions Essay

921 words - 4 pages

2.3. a) Eight main organelles and their functions:

Nucleus-this organelle is the most prominent feature of an eukaryotic cell. It can be found both in plants and animals. Some cells contain multiple nuclei, such as skeletal muscle, while some do not have any, such as red blood cells. The functions of the nucleus are to:

· act as a control centre through the production of mRNA and protein synthesis

· retain genetic material of the cell in the form of DNA /chromosomes

· manufacture rRNA and ribosomes

· start the process of cell division;

Chloroplasts can be found only in plant cells and some protists. The main function of the chloroplast is ...view middle of the document...

This organelle is important for a cell as it:

· provides a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins

· provides pathway for the transport of materials , especially proteins

· synthesises, transports and stores lipids

· synthesises, transports and stores carbohydrates;

Golgi apparatus has main functions to:

· produce secretory enzymes such as those secreted in pancreas

· secrete carbohydrates such as those used in making cell walls in plants

· transport, modify and store lipids

· form lysosomes

· produce steroids

· produce and store glycogen

Lysosomes are very important to keep the cell safe. To be more precise, lysosomes do:

· break down material ingested by phagocytic cells (a good example is white blood cells)

· release enzymes to the outside of the cell so that the material around the cell could be destroyed

· digest worn out organelles so that useful chemicals of which they are made of can be re-used

· completely break down cells after they have died;

Centrioles look like hollow cylinders when looked at under an electron microscope . Although being only 0.5 µm in length and 0.2 µm in diameter, they have very important functions:

· to involve in the formation of microtubules that make up the cytoskeleton in the cell

· position and move the chromosomes during nuclear division of a cell;

2.3. b) Relationship between ER and ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) needs ribosomes attached to it as these organelles actually synthesize proteins. Only after being synthesized by ribosomes proteins enter the lumen space (interior of ER) where they may be modified. Then the proteins are sent to the lumen of smooth ER.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum manufactures membranes and secretory proteins which have to be specific. For example, in leukocytes the rough endoplasmic reticulum produces antibodies. In pancreatic cells the rough ER produces insulin. The rough and smooth ER are...

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