Optimum Nutrition Is Needed For Optimum Health

1560 words - 7 pages

Discuss this statement, drawing on contemporary research to explain the role nutrition plays in an individual’s health.

Grade 20/20 High distinction

Current tribal cultures; for example the San Bushmen and the Hadaza (Crittendon 2012), practice dietary empirical knowledge ( appendix I) and experience as a way of life. 1960’s medical and anthropological studies (Bond, 2012) concluded the San’s dietary and lifestyle behaviours demonstrated optimal nutrition/health across all generations (Kirchengast, 1998). Optimal nutrition, the most conducive dietary patterns, nutrients and other substances contained within foods, beverages and ...view middle of the document...

The 2013 Nutrient Reference Value (NRV) of daily Adequate Intake; (AI) of fats for men: linoleic 13g, a-linoleic 1.3g, LC omega-3 160mg and women: 8g, 0.8g and 90mg respectively. Are not generally included in food labeling. NRV’s include an Upper Limit (UL) of 3,000mg for possible toxicity (DAA, 2016) of 3,000mg. Unfortunately saturated or trans fats which is often the fats consumed in high energy dense foods has no recommendations. All NRV”S are calculated based on age, gender, life stage and PAL* including 1. Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT), which aim to reduce chronic disease. For example, replacing nutrient poor energy dense foods with fruits and vegetables SDT for Vitamin A, C, and E could be achieved. Switching to red-yellow fruit and vegetables could achieve the Vitamin A daily SDT for men 1,500g and women 1,220g (NHMRC, 2013) 2. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) The daily nutrient level to meet requirement of healthy individuals … half the population” For example Iron EAR for men, women and pregnancy are 6mg, 8mg and 22-23mg respectively. RDI are evaluated from EAR and notably higher. Both SDT and EAR applies to many micronutrients other than iron, including Vitamin B6, Zinc, Niacin and Selenium. Therapeutic dosage should not exceed UL and where possible fall within EAR or RDI ranges.
Unlike other NRV’s for nutrients mentioned Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR); the percentage of each macronutrient, carbohydrate, protein and fats contributing to total daily energy intake. Macronutrients, all have specific nutritional benefits while contributing to the total energy intake of an individual at a rate of 16.7kJ for carbohydrates and proteins and 37.7kJ for fats.(WHO:FAO:UNU, 2004). The Australian Dietary Guidelines (NHMRC 2013) consider the intake of energy dense, nutrient poor foods, saturated fats and added sugars is associated with the major causes of disease; including type 2 diabetes and CVD, in Australia. To address increasing disease the FAO:WHO and NRMC (2013) AMDR determined by age, gender, height to weight ratios (BMI) and PAL* recommend carbohydrates should contribute 45-65% energy, fats 20-35% and proteins 15-25% consistent with the NHMRC and DAA (2016). No Upper Limit (UL) has been set with the suggestion the macronutrients should “complement each other” (NHMRC, 2013). Carbohydrate intake greater than 60-65 % is considered an increased a risk of metabolic syndrome (Park et al 2003) and cardiovascular disease (NHMRC, 2013) Trans fats “elevate LDL cholesterol and lower beneficial HDL cholesterol (Ascherio et al, 1999), notably these levels and foods are not considered toxic. ANZ propose the form of carbohydrates (starches or sugars), and fats (saturated, omega 6:3 ratio) consumed is the priority in AMDR. Conceding, raising the intake of omega 3 oils above Adequate Intake may be beneficial in the reduction of CVD. The UK recommended the separation of sucrose from the AMDR and expressed in grams per day...

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