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One Application Of Magnetic Fields In Household Appliances

3749 words - 15 pages

One thing that uses magnetic fields is the electric motor, which is used in many household appliances, such as electric fans, microwave ovens, and other small appliances. In this instance the electric motor has an electric current, giving it also this magnetic field.An electric motor converts electricity into mechanical motion.Most electric motors work by electromagnetism, but motors based on electrostatic forces also exist. The overarching concept is that a force is generated when a current-carrying element is subjected to a magnetic field. In a cylindrical motor, the rotor rotates because a torque is developed when this force is applied at a given distance from the axis of the rotor.Most ...view middle of the document...

A common single-phase motor is the shaded pole motor, which is used in devices requiring lower torque, such as electric fans, microwave ovens, and other small household appliances. In this motor, small single-turn copper "shading coils" create the moving magnetic field.Another common single-phase AC motor is the split-phase induction motor, commonly used in major appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers. Compared to the shaded pole motor, these motors can generally provide much greater starting torque by using a special startup winding along with a centrifugal switch and a starting capacitor.Three-phase AC motors.For higher-power applications where a polyphase electrical supply is available, the three phase AC induction motor is used. The phase differences between the three phases of the polyphase electrical supply create a rotating electromagnetic field in the motor. There are two types of rotors in use.Through electromagnetic induction, the rotating magnetic field creates a current in these conductors, which in turn sets up a counterbalancing magnetic field that causes the rotor to turn in the direction that the field is rotating.This type of motor is becoming more common in appliances such as locomotives, where it is known as the asynchronous traction motor. If the rotor coils are fed a separate field current to create a continuous magnetic field, the result is a called a synchronous motor because the motor rotates in synchronism with the rotating magnetic field produced by the three phase electrical supply.Bibliography.An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical motion. The reverse task, that of converting mechanical motion into electrical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. In many cases the two devices differ only in their application and minor construction details. Electrical energy or Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy present in any electric field or magnetic field, or in any volume containing electromagnetic radiation. ...Most electric motors work by electromagnetism, but motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect, also exist. The fundamental principle upon which electromagnetic motors are based is that there is a mechanical force on any wire when it is conducting electricity while contained within a magnetic field. The force is described by the Lorentz force law and is perpendicular to both the wire and the magnetic field. In a rotary motor, there is a rotating element, the rotor. The rotor rotates because the wires and magnetic field are arranged so that a torque is developed about the rotor's axis. In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... An electrostatic motor or capacitor motor is a type of electric motor based on the attraction and repulsion of electric charge. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage...

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