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Oil And Gas 2 Essay

1270 words - 6 pages

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Molecular Nanotechnology

Molecular assembler
Molecular machine
Productive nanosystems
K. Eric Drexler
Engines of Creation

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Carbon Nanotubes


Molecular self-assembly
Self-assembled monolayer
Supramolecular assembly
DNA nanotechnology ...view middle of the document...

Following this definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. Also, macroscale robots or microrobots that can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.

Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase[1], but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nanomachines, if such are ever built, might be in medical technology, which might use them to identify and destroy cancer cells. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. Recently, Rice University has demonstrated a single-molecule car developed by a chemical process and including buckyballs for wheels. It is actuated by controlling the environmental temperature and by positioning a scanning tunneling microscope tip.

Contents [hide]
1 Nanorobotics theory
2 Approaches
2.1 Biochip
2.2 Nubots
2.3 Positional nanoassembly
2.4 Bacteria based
2.5 Open technology
3 Potential applications
3.1 Nanomedicine
3.2 Nanorobots
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

[edit] Nanorobotics theory
Since nanorobots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic tasks. These nanorobot swarms, both those incapable of replication (as in utility fog) and those capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment (as in grey goo and its less common variants), are found in many science fiction stories, such as the Borg nanoprobes in Star Trek and The Outer Limits episode The New Breed. The word "nanobot" (also "nanite", "nanogene", or "nanoant") is often used to indicate this fictional context and is an informal or even pejorative term to refer to the engineering concept of nanorobots. The word nanorobot is the correct technical term in the nonfictional context of serious engineering studies.[citation needed]

Some proponents of nanorobotics, in reaction to the grey goo scare scenarios that they earlier helped to propagate, hold the view that nanorobots capable of replication outside of a restricted factory environment do not form a necessary part of a purported productive nanotechnology, and that the process of self-replication, if it were ever to be developed, could be made inherently safe. They further assert that their current plans for developing and using molecular manufacturing do not in fact include free-foraging replicators.[2][3]

[edit] Approaches
[edit] Biochip
Main article: Biochip
The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as...

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