Dorothy Johnson - Nursing Theorist
Biography and Career of Dorothy E. Johnson
Dorothy E. Johnson was born on August 21, 1919 in Savannah, Georgia.
She earned her Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 1942 from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1948, she received her Master's degree from Harvard University.
During her career, Johnson was an assistant professor of pediatric nursing, an associate professor of nursing, and a professor of nursing at the University of California in Los Angeles. She retired in 1978.
Works written by Dorothy Johnson include:
Theory Development: What, Why, How?
Barriers and Hazards in Counseling
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To assist the patient whose behavior does not give evidence of unnecessary trauma as a consequence of illness.
The assumptions made by Johnson's theory are in three categories: assumptions about system, assumptions about structure, and assumptions about functions.
There are four assumptions about system in the model:
There is "organization, interaction, interdependency and integration of the parts and elements of behaviors that go to make up the system."
A system "tends to achieve a balance among the various forces operating within and upon it, and that man strive continually to maintain a behavioral system balance and steady state by more or less automatic adjustments and adaptations to the natural forces occurring on him."
A behavioral system, which requires and results in some degree of regularity and constancy in behavior, is essential to man. It is functionally significant because it serves a useful purpose in social life as well as for the individual.
"System balance reflects adjustments and adaptations that are successful in some way and to some degree."
The four assumptions about structure and function are that:
"from the form the behavior takes and the consequences it achieves can be inferred what 'drive' has been stimulated or what 'goal' is being sought."
Each individual person has a "predisposition to act with reference to the goal, in certain ways rather than the other...