Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
NRS/403 Theories and Models of Nursing Practice
27 November 2011
Due to the ever changing health care system nationally and the increase need for qualified nurses worldwide, nursing responsibilities and patient load have intensified. Nurses are expected to care for higher acuity patients in more complex health care situations. Despite increased hardships in the work place, nurses must continually try to find ways to preserve their caring approach. Jean Watson’s caring theory can be seen as indispensable to this goal. This paper will explain the background behind the theory and take a personal approach in showing how it ...view middle of the document...
Clinical nurses and academic programs throughout the world use her published works on the philosophy and theory of human caring and the art and science of caring in nursing (Sitzman, 2007).
Theory of Human Caring
“Transpersonal caring calls for an authenticity of being and becoming, an ability to be present to self and other in a reflective frame; the transpersonal nurse has the ability to center consciousness and intentionality on caring, healing, and wholeness, rather than on disease, illness and pathology” (Dr. Jean Watson, 2011). Observing Watson’s concepts of caring allows the care giver to rely upon the deeply rooted humanistic values that represent the embodiment of an ideal nurse. The major elements of her theory are (a) the carative factors, (b) the transpersonal caring relationship, and (c) the caring occasion/caring moment.
Carative Factors/Ten Caritas Processes
Watson used the term carative factors in contrast to the medicinal curative approach as the guide for the core of nursing. The carative factors are comprised of 10 elements: 1. Humanistic altruistic system of value, 2.faith-hope, 3.sensitivity to self and others, 4.helping-trusting human care relationship, 5.expressing positive and negative feelings, 6.creative problem-solving caring process, 7.transpersonal teaching-learning, 8.supportive environment, 9.human needs assistance, and 10.existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces (Watson, 2008).
As the theory evolved, Watson adopted the concept of clinical caritas processes, which have now replaced her carative factors. The term Caritas comes from the Latin word meaning to cherish, to appreciate, and to give special, if not loving, attention to. It represents charity and compassion, generosity of spirit. It connotes something very fine, indeed, something precious that needs to be cultivated and sustained (Watson, 2008). Sincere caring interactions become possible when the nurse consciously supports the following ideals: 1.Cultivating practice of loving-kindness and equanimity toward self and others. 2. Being authentically present: enabling, sustaining and honoring faith and hope. 3. Cultivation of one’s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego-self. 4. Developing and sustaining a helping-trusting caring relationship. 5. Being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings. 6. Creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process 7. Engage in genuine teaching-learning experience that attends to unity of being and subjective meaning. 8. Creating a healing environment at all levels. 9. Administering sacred acts of caring-healing by tending to basic needs. 10. Opening and attending to spiritual/mysterious and existential unknowns of life-death (Watson, 2008).
Transpersonal Caring Relationship
“Transpersonal Caring acknowledges unity of life and connections that move in concentric circles of caring-from individual, to...