1. A. A local loop is a loop of copper wire that allows a current to flow from a telephone to the central office and back. It is a dual-wire physical interface that connects a telephone to the central office and are typically referred to as a twisted pair. Many of these pairs are twisted together to make a cable for a local loop to provide multiple connections for multiple phone to interface with the local central office.
b. A Central office is a building to which a subscribers home and business lines are connected to a local loop. This office has telecom. Switches to switch calls locally or to a long-distance carrier. A central office is also referred to as a ...view middle of the document...
a. Cellular Telephones are wireless telephones that are served by the cellular telephone system. This system is broken into small geographical groups called cells. Cells are connected to a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO). The connection from the cell to the MTSO is typically done over the telephone lines. These lines can be copper or fiber optic and in some applications microwaves are used. Typically the geographical area of a cell is kept small to minimize radio frequency power required from the cell phone to communicate with the cell tower. When a cell phone is used it a mobile application, it will communicate with different cell towers as it moves through a geographical area. The cell towers monitor the strength of a signal coming from a cell phone. When the signal gets to low the cell tower automatically switches to a cell tower that is physically closer, where the signal strength is greater. This is called the handoff process.
i. Voice: the first generation cell phones transmitted information in an analog format similar to the way a fixed-line telephone transmits voice information from the subscriber to the central office. When the second generation cell phones entered the market, the transmission went from analog to digital. This is when cell phones started having the ability to transmit and receive data as well as voice.
ii. Data: as second generation technologies matured, many people started using their cell phones to access the internet. To meet consumer needs for data, 3g was cell phone technology was introduced which offered higher data rates over 2g. today’s cell phones are running on 4g. 4g offers 10 times the data transmission rate of 3g.
b. Telephone Network Topology:
Telecommunication services carry information to and from consumers over an extensive global network of cables, connecters, wireless towers, transmitters, receivers, and switches and it is designed to carry information around the world. Based on this application, the telecommunications network is divided into topologies, or segments based on the distance from the consumer and the purpose of the information flow. These topologies are Access network, Regional/ metro networks, Core/long-haul networks, and Ocean networks.
i. Demarcation Point:
The demarcation point is the point in which the service provider ends and the end user becomes responsible for the network. The demarcation point is typically made in the entrance facility portion of the main equipment room of a commercial building or the ONT optical network terminal.
The demarcation point includes the tie in of the OSP, outside plant, cable to the customer premise equipment racks and active equipment. In the FTTH network, this connection is typically made in the consumer premises where the fiber optic or copper cabling is connected to the ONT. Form an ONT to a FTTH...