Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer, the most preventable cancer, it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women in Canada. In 2008, it was estimated that there would be 23,900 new cases (12,600 men and 11,300 women) of lung cancer in Canada and that there would be 20,200 deaths (11,000 men and 9200 women) from lung cancer in Canada (Lewis, Heitkemper McLean, Dirksen Ruff, O’Brien Graber, & Bucher). Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a term for different types of lung cancers that have different types of cancer cells that grow and spread in their own way. NSCLC accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancer cases and includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, ...view middle of the document...
Large cell (undifferentiated) carcinoma also has a high correlation with smoking and exposure to environmental carcinogens. Large cell carcinomas tend to occur in the periphery of the lung, invading subsegmental bronchi and larger airways (Hannon et al. 2010).
Pathophysiology of the Respiratory System
All of the systems of the body, each have a vital function to do and each of these systems work together to keep the body in homeostasis. A major component needed to keep each system functioning properly, especially our respiratory system, is the need for oxygen. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems share responsibility for supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide. The respiratory system is where for gas exchange occurs between the blood and the oxygen we breath in from the external environment.
The respiratory system is comprised of several different organs that assist in breathing; theses organs include the nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, and the lungs, which consist of the bronchi and bronchioles, and the alveoli. Each lung has their own lobes, the right-sided lung has three lobes while the left-sided lung has two lobes, they are also broken up into segments, the right lung has ten segments and the left lung has nine segments. There is a thin, transparent, double-layered serous membrane, called the pleura, which lines the thoracic cavity and encases the lungs (Hannon et al. 2010). The layer that encases the lungs is called the visceral pleura and the layer that lines the thoracic cavity is called the parietal pleura. There is a space between the visceral and parietal pleura called the pleural space, this space is filled with serous fluid which is slippery and allows the lungs the glide easily against the thoracic wall during breathing movements but also pleurae is tightly adhering which is absolutely essential for breathing.
The structures of the lungs are broken down into two separate zones, the conducting zone structures and the respiratory zone structures. The conducting zone structures include the left and right main bronchi which is the bottom portion of the trachea as it divides into two and comes down closer to the lungs, the right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical then the left, giving it more potential for objects to be inhaled and trapped inside. Once inside the lungs, each main bronchus subdivides into lobar (secondary) bronchi- three on the right and two on the left- each supplying one lobe. The lobar bronchi branch into third-order segmental (tertiary) bronchi, which divide repeatedly into smaller and smaller bronchi (fourth-order, fifth-order etc.). Passages smaller than 1mm in diameter are called bronchioles and the tiniest of these, the terminal bronchioles, are less than 0.5mm in diameter (Marieb & Hoehn 2013). The respiratory zone structures start at the end of the terminal bronchioles where they lead into the respiratory bronchioles, than the smallest...