Nigeria And The Problem Of Regional Integration

2036 words - 9 pages

THE STORY OF NIGERIA during the postcolonial era has been one of a search for the constitutional and political arrangement that, while allowing for the self-expression of its socially and culturally diverse peoples, would not hinder the construction of a nation out of this mosaic. In this search, the country has experienced cycles of military and civilian rule, civil war, and peaceful reconstruction.

If any nation typified political scientist Richard Sklar's characterization of the African continent as a "workshop of democracy," it would certainly be Nigeria. The country has experimented with different federal, state, and local government systems, learning more about its needs, resources, ...view middle of the document...

Nigeria became politically independent on October 1, 1960, after about seven decades of colonial rule by the British. Prior to colonial rule, most of the groups that today make up the country were often distinguished by differences in history, culture, political development, and religion. The major differences among these precolonial groups pertained to their sociopolitical organization: anthropological and historical studies usually distinguish between societies that were centralized ("state") and those that were noncentralized ("stateless"). To the former category belonged the Sokoto Caliphate and the emirates of the north that, together with the Kanem-Bornu Empire, were advanced Islamic theocracies. Also included in this category were the Benin, Oyo, and other western kingdoms, as well as the Igala Kingdom in the middle belt (see Glossary) or lower north. In these centralized systems, there were clear divisions between the rulers and the ruled, usually based on wealth and ascribed status. Institutions of a distinctly political nature, as well as taxation systems, were already established. Of all the centralized systems, the Sokoto Caliphate with its vassal emirates had the most advanced form of state organization. Not surprisingly, it provided the model for the British colonial policy of indirect rule, i.e., the governance of indigenous peoples through their own institutions and rulers.

By contrast, in noncentralized systems such as those of the Igbo and other eastern and middle-belt groups, there was a diffusion of political, economic, and religious institutions and practices. Also to be found was a large measure of egalitarianism, democracy, and decentralized authority. Under the colonial policy of indirect rule, "traditional" rulers (known as warrant chiefs) were imposed on these stateless societies.

In the immediate precolonial period, a pronounced religious gulf separated the northern from the southern peoples. Islam had been introduced to the Hausa states and other northern parts in the fifteenth century, but it did not dominate until the jihad of 1804, which extended Islamic influence to most parts of the north and even to towns on the southern fringe, such as Oyo and Auchi. The southern peoples were devotees mainly of traditional religions who underwent increasing contact with, and exposure to, Europeans and Christianity. In some areas of the south, such as Benin and Warri, the penetration of Christianity dates to the fifteenth century. When the north experienced contact with Europeans much later, the spread of Christianity and other Western influences was slowed by the strong attachment to Islam. This fact explains in part the uneven rates of economic and educational development between the northern and southern peoples that have persisted to this day, with important consequences for government and politics.

It should not be assumed that the various population groups in precolonial Nigeria were completely separated from...

Other Papers Like Nigeria and the Problem of Regional Integration

Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Nigeria

1373 words - 6 pages identities are harnessed positively as a uniting force rather than divisive factor or an impediment to nation building. In South Africa, the potential for disaster may have been averted by the wisdom of Nelson Mandela. In South Africa's transition process, Mandela's charisma helped the African national Congress to pursue the path of negotiation, accommodation and confidence building for managing the ethnic diversity problem. However, in Nigeria the

History of Nigeria and South Africa

1425 words - 6 pages History South Africa’s and Nigeria’s histories have been dominated by the integration and conflict of several diverse ethnic groups. Looking at each nation’s history there was colonization by the Europeans, suffering of their people, assassinations of leaders and corruption in their governments. Today both nations are attempting overcome past wrong doings and improve the standard of life for their people. The earliest inhabitants of South

Assessment of the Mdgs in Nigeria

2207 words - 9 pages Nigeria is going on the right track as regards the MDGs. THE ASSESSMENT GOAL 1: ERADICATION OF EXTREME HUNGER AND POVERTY Poverty has been one of Nigeria’s biggest socio-economic problems. Poverty levels have been increasing over the years and it has become a difficult problem for the government to tackle. The governments that have existed never showed enough effort to tackling poverty and it led to more people not having a means of

Promoting the Safety of Journalists in Nigeria

2468 words - 10 pages PROMOTING THE SAFETY OF JOURNALISTS IN NIGERIA. By Gbemiga Bamidele Journalism continues to be a very dangerous profession both in the peaceful arena as well as in conflict zones. In peace zones , despite the pessimistic democratization in Africa , government, politicians, economic and religious groups still see journalists as impostors who have no business in reporting ‘’critical issues’’ that to some extent affect these ‘’key players

The Problem and Review of Related Literature

3199 words - 13 pages TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I The Problem and Review of related Literature 1 Background of the Study Review of Related Literature and Studies Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the problem Hypothesis II Methodology Research Design Population and sampling Instrumentation Procedure Data Analysis

Ethical Issues for the Integration of Religion and Spirituality in Therapy

964 words - 4 pages Ethical Issues for the Integration of Religion and Spirituality in Therapy Ethics and Standards of Professional Psychology Patricia Elias Kaplan University   Abstract Over the past ten years, new developments in the psychological treatment and assessment of clients of diverse spirituality and religiosity has occurred. These changes have prompted the need for a broader understanding of therapeutic practices related to client spirituality

The Impact of Microfinance Institution on the Economy of Nigeria

2628 words - 11 pages Introduction The introduction of microfinance banks in Nigeria is the inability of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks to provide sufficient financial service to the rural poor. Microfinance banks have taken up the challenges of the gap created by the Nigerian Deposit Money Banks. Microfinance banks can be seen as an economic growth method intended to advantage the low income part of a given country like Nigeria, both rural poor and urban poor

The Existence and Persistence of Large Spatial Disparities in Unemployment Within National Economies Is a Central Issue in Regional Economics

2097 words - 9 pages ] Furthermore Oswald (1997) reports survey evidence that shows unemployed people are much less happy people then the employed and ‘support the conclusion that losing one's job is amongst the worst things that can happen to a person.’[5] Regional unemployment disparities specifically break down informal support networks and asset prices drop sharply with economic distress becoming an acute social problem. Areas with persistent levels of

Determinants Of Financing Choice Of Listed Firms The Nigeria Experience

2304 words - 10 pages preliminary ground work upon which a more detailed evaluation research could be based on. It is hoped to answer the question whether, and how closely, does the determinants of Nigeria firms’ capital structure support the Western finance theories (static trade-off, agency cost and pecking order models) while providing answers to Nigeria firms financing choice as it relates to their financial performance. 1.1 Aim The main aim of this research is to

Appraisal of Income Tax Collection and Administration in Nigeria

2467 words - 10 pages . 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Since the creation of Enugu State, the tax collection has not been encouraging. The Income tax laws as provided by the Personal Income Tax Decree No. 104 of 1993 as amended and the finance laws of Eastern Nigeria still operating in Enugu State made a lot of provisions as to Income taxable in the hands of taxpayers, but even at that, the tax yield on Personal Income has not been sufficient to meet the Government

Statemet of the Problem

5455 words - 22 pages alertness is by visual or auditory stimuli related to the subject matter. The stimulus chosen for gaining attention will work equally well for all categories of learning outcomes CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION “As a teacher, I also encounter the problem of getting the attention of my students especially in their listening skill. When you’re discussing your lesson or talking in front

Related Essays

Healthcare Comparison Of The Usa And Nigeria

1025 words - 5 pages Four Main Differences between the healthcare systems in Nigeria and the USA. Paul Fortune College of Nursing   After living in my native country, Nigeria for nearly twenty years of my life, I had the opportunity to relocate to the United States of America to live with my Dad while pursuing a career in Nursing. On getting to the United States of America or the USA as it is commonly called, I discovered how lovely and different the country

Integration Of Faith And Learning Essay

704 words - 3 pages Integration of Faith and Learning 2 Natalie Collins Liberty University Abstract The book of Joshua details when God commanded Joshua to lead the Israelites into Jericho, and other cities. The position Joshua had to take can be compared to those that take place in marketing management. Marketing management takes place when an individual takes the necessary steps to achieve desired responses from others in business. Marketing is not only

The Power Of Strategic Integration Essay

2960 words - 12 pages The Power of Strategic Integration How can multibusiness corporations exploit the opportunities that take full advantage of their capabilities and their potential to pursue new strategies? Robert A. Burgelman and Yves L Doz A,, multibusiness corporations face the strategic imperative imposed by the stock market: maximizing the profitable growth of their businesses. Long-term success in meeting that imperative requires developing

The Role Of Regional Councillors In Namibia

616 words - 3 pages In the region there are plenty of intresting places and there are a lot of features which vary from game to waterfalls. There region is rich inculture and they are still preserving their culture till to this day. In 204 the Minister of Environment and Tourism opened the Tsandi Royal homestead which is a Cultaral heritage museum. The region share a border with the Etosha National park , the governemrnt in 1996 passed a legislation that enabled