Nietzsche: His philosophy and “Beyond Good and Evil”
Marxists vs. Mill’s view of socialism
1- Describe Nietzsche’s basic philosophy and his “New Morality” as revealed in his “Gay Science”, “Twilight of the Idol’s” books. Then choose one of his writings in his book “Beyond Good and Evil” and describe the philosophy he attempts to reveal. Conclude with your opinion on his philosophy of religion and his view of the Cosmos.
Born on October 15, 1844 in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
was a German poet and philosopher, a classical philologist and a professor of Greek at the University of
Basle. He was the author of many works that talked ...view middle of the document...
He believed that the Europeans of his time are vastly inferior in value to Europeans of the
Renaissance.Nietzsche’s philosophy was not based on destroying morality but on initiating a new
evaluation of the Judeo-Christian world. He believed that morality exists, he did not deny its existence,
but he believed it is misinterpreted and it needs reevaluations of existing values to improve moral
standards for people to understand it better.
In his book “Gay Science”, there are many central themes of a joyful affirmation of life and of an
immersion in a light-hearted scholarship that takes aesthetic pleasure in life. Nietzsche’s readings reflect
his imagination and caustic wit. “I seek God! I seek God! As many of those who do not believe in God
were standing around just then, he provoked much laughter”: this is a quotation from his writing, “Gay
Science”, as an example, Nietzsche offers the doctrine of eternal recurrence, which ranks one’s life as the
sole consideration when evaluating how one should act: “Why did he get lost? Did he lose his way like a
child? Or is he hiding? Is he afraid of us?” This contrasts with the Christian view of an afterlife which
emphasizes later reward at the cost of one’s immediate happiness. The “Gay Science” became best known
for the statement “God is dead” and the doctrine of eternal recurrence — a doctrine that attends to how
people of different levels of health are likely to react to the prospect of an “eternal return” in which one is
reborn, over and over again, to relive one's life exactly as before in every pleasurable and painful detail.
His expression: “God is dead” forms a part of his naturalistic and aesthetic alternative to tradition.
Nietzsche's atheism , his account of “God's murder”, was voiced in reaction to the conception of a single,
ultimate, judgmental authority who is privy to everyone's hidden and personally embarrassing secrets; his
atheism also aimed to redirect people's attention to their inherent freedom, the presently-existing world,
and away from escapist, pain-relieving, heavenly other worlds. To a similar end, his doctrine of eternal
recurrence serves to draw attention away from all worlds other than the one in which we presently live,
since eternal recurrence precludes the possibility of any final escape from the present world. The doctrine
also functions as a measure for judging someone's overall psychological strength and mental health, since
Nietzsche believed that the doctrine of eternal recurrence was the hardest world-view to affirm. In his
book, he experiments with the notion of power: “You are a god and never have I heard anything more
divine.” In the reading 5.24, “Gay Science” entitled “The Madman”; he is depicting the parable of the
madman who is searching for God. He accuses us all for being the murderers of God: “Whither is God?
He cried; I will tell you: we have killed him you and I. All of us are his murderers…”