Anatomy review for the nervous system - Week 12 Study Guide
1. Distinguish the difference between neuron, neuroglial cells, Schwann cells, neurofibrils, and astrocytes. Neurons are structural and functional cells reacting to the physical and chemical changes in their environment. Neuroglial cells are the supporting cells necessary for nourishing and maintaining the neurons, among other functions. Schwann cells are the cells that wrap around nerve fibers to form a protective myelin sheath. Neurofibrils are fibrils in the cytoplasm in nerve cells. Astrocytes are star shaped cells located between neurons and blood vessels.
2. What is the difference between dendrites and axons? ...view middle of the document...
10. There are 3 layers of membranes of the nervous system. Name them in order starting with the outer layer. The outmost layer is called Dura, followed by Arachnoid mater, who surrounds the innermost layer called the Pia mater.
11. Between what 2 layers is the CSF found? It is between Arachoid and Pai mater layers.
12. In a spinal tap, between which vertebrae is the needle inserted to measure cerebrospinal fluid pressure? The needle should be inserted in the lumbar vertebrae.
13. The brain is divided into 3 major sections, what are they? The major portion is the cerebrum, cerebellum, and the brain stem.
14. Which of the 3 deals with higher mental functions/thinking? The cerebrum
15. Which one deals with visceral activities? The brain stem
16. Which one deals with voluntary muscular movements? The cerebellum
17. What is affected by Parkinson’s and Huntington’s? Movement is affected by both.
18. What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system? The two parts are called the Somatic and Autonomic nervous system.
19. What is the outermost portion of the cerebrum called? The cerebral cortex
20. How do drugs that decrease a membrane's permeability to sodium affect the perception of pain? It prevents the touch or pain sensation. How to they affect nerve impulses? It stops them. When are these types of drugs typically used? They are typically used during surgery.
21. How does caffeine stimulate the activity of the nervous system? It stimulates the cortex of your brain and heightens your mental awareness.
22. How do amphetamines stimulate the nervous system? Amphetamines release a substance stored in nerve endings which is concentrated in the brain higher centers and speeds up the action of the heart and the metabolic process.
23. What is an analgesic? It’s when you hit your head hard enough to be unconscious but you’re still conscious, and you don’t feel the pain because it was...