Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness
There are mainly four factors that influence how effectively individuals negotiate-
The influence of moods/emotions depends upon the type of negotiation as well. In distributive negotiations, it is seen that negotiators who are in a position of power or have equal status and who show anger, negotiate better results because their anger results in concessions. Negotiators, when angry, feel more focused and assertive when striking a bargain. On the other hand, for those in less powerful position or lesser stature, displaying anger can only lead to bad ...view middle of the document...
Because of difference in culture people tend to approach a negotiation with two thoughts, that either it is a win-win negotiation, where both the parties gain. Or it is a win-lose negotiation, where one party needs to lose in order to win. For example, 100% Japanese took the view that they approached a negotiation with a win-win mind set, only 33% Spanish people agreed on it.
Methods of Communications also vary among various cultures. Some people support direct and simple method to communicate, while others rely heavily on indirect and complex methods. When negotiating with Americans or Israelis, we can get a clear and specific response to our proposals. But when dealing with the Japanese, who depend on indirect negotiation, reactions to the proposals may be gained by interpreting hand gestures, figurative form of speech, vague comments and facial expression.
Women and Men negotiate no differently. However men are believed to pull off better deals. A popular notion is that women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than are men, but the evidence doesn’t really support this notion. Men have been found to negotiate better outcomes than women, although the difference is pretty small.
Because women have an image of being ‘nice’ and men of being ‘tough’, research shows that women are often punished when they start negotiations. What makes this situation hopeless even more, is the fact that when women act ‘nice’ and men act ‘tough’, it only reinforces the beliefs of the stereotypes further and increases the gender differences among men and women. Thus, anything women do, they are damned to be beaten in the race of better outcomes by men.
THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS
Occasionally, individuals or group representatives reach a stalemate and are not able to resolve their differences through direct negotiations. In this case, they may turn towards a third party to help them reach a solution. There are four basic third-party roles-
A mediator is a neutral third party who provides a calculated and negotiated solution, reached upon by using reasoning, persuasion and suggesting...