Natural Fam Ily Planning Essay

3066 words - 13 pages

Natural family planning
Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. In accordance with the Church's requirements for sexual behavior in keeping with its philosophy of the dignity of the human person, NFP excludes the use of other methods of birth control.
Periodic abstinence and the natural infertility caused by breastfeeding are the only methods deemed moral by the Church for avoiding pregnancy. When used to avoid pregnancy, NFP limits sexual intercourse to naturally infertile periods: portions of the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy, or after menopause. Various methods may be used to identify whether a woman is ...view middle of the document...

Distributed to confessors, the ruling stated that couples who had, on their own, begun the practice of periodic abstinence—especially if they had "legitimate reasons"—were not right by doing so.

In 1880, the Sacred Penitentiary reaffirmed the 1853 ruling, and went slightly further. It suggested that, in cases where the couple was already practicing artificial birth control, and could not be dissuaded to cease attempting birth regulation, the confessor might morally teach them of periodic abstinence.
Early 20th century
In 1905 Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde, a Dutch gynecologist, showed that women only ovulate once per menstrual cycle. In the 1920s, Kyusaku Ogino, a Japanese gynecologist, and Hermann Knaus, from Austria, working independently, each made the discovery that ovulation occurs about fourteen days before the next menstrual period. Ogino used his discovery to develop a formula for use in aiding infertile women to time intercourse to achieve pregnancy.
In 1930, John Smulders, a Roman Catholic physician from the Netherlands, used Knaus and Ogino's discoveries to create a method for avoiding pregnancy. Smulders published his work with the Dutch Roman Catholic medical association, and this was the official rhythm method promoted over the next several decades. While maintaining procreation as the primary function of intercourse, the December 1930 encyclical Casti Connubii by Pope Pius XI gave the highest form of recognition to a secondary—unitive—purpose of sexual intercourse. This encyclical stated that there was no moral stain associated with having marital intercourse at times when "new life cannot be brought forth." Although this referred primarily to conditions such as current pregnancy and menopause, the Sacred Penitentiary in yet another ruling in 1932, and the majority of Catholic theologians also interpreted it to allow moral use—for couples with "upright motives"—of the newly created rhythm method.
In 1932 a Catholic physician published a book titled The Rhythm of Sterility and Fertility in Women describing the method, and the 1930s also saw the first U.S. Rhythm Clinic (founded by John Rock) to teach the method to Catholic couples. It was during this decade that Rev. Wilhelm Hillebrand, a Catholic priest in Germany, developed a system for avoiding pregnancy based on basal body temperature.
Later 20th century to present
A minority of Catholic theologians continued to doubt the morality of periodic abstinence. Some historians consider two speeches delivered by Pope Pius XII in 1951 to be the first unequivocal acceptance of periodic abstinence by the Catholic Church. The 1950s also saw another major advance in fertility awareness knowledge: Dr. John Billings discovered the relationship between cervical mucus and fertility while working for the Melbourne Catholic Family Welfare Bureau. Dr. Billings and several other physicians studied this sign for a number of years, and by the late 1960s had performed clinical trials and...

Other Papers Like Natural Fam Ily Planning

San Francisco Convention Essay

5717 words - 23 pages , preserve natural resources, and continue to make SFO a healthful place to work. (Community and Environment) The San Francisco International Airport has won eleven awards only in this past year for the excellent service and quality everything at the airport. They have won awards for Sustainable planning, design, and construction, excellent overall concession program, best health and wellness in an airport, excellence in business for economic

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania

1636 words - 7 pages “also rich in churches” (Neil Olsen 44). To conclude, Albania remains an attractive place for vacation during winter and summer because of its immaculate nature. This small country, which lies between the East and West, offers the perfect mixture of eastern and western cultures. Therefore, it is worth having cultural vacations in Albania. Once, Lord Byron wrote, “Albania . . . is a country rarely visited . . .though abounding in more natural

A Heart Of Darkness

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages did not benefit from the study. But what about the women who did benefit from the study; does it make the research any less unethical? These women were significantly disadvantaged and because of that they were taken advantage of. In Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972, 600 African-American men were evaluated in a study on the natural history of syphilis amongst untreated "Negro males". At the beginning of the study little was known about how

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages revolution) to try this form of society and economy out to see if it would improve their poor conditions that capitalism helped bring them too. It provided a new sense of hope. Sadly, there were quite a few flaws in Marx’s idea. One of the largest flaws were Marx’s lack of acknowledgement for the natural human instinct to act selfish, or the occurrence of insanity in people, and their tendencies to commit insane actions. In a socialist communism

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Related Essays

Argument Essay

1320 words - 6 pages emely scary statistic c onsidering that fifty- eight percent of children in America are living in a single parent fam ily. This is a chilling percentage because it shows how little faith is put into a relationship before actually deciding to have children. Unfortunately not all single-parents take the time to perform the vital tasks needed to rais e their children. Parents who th ink they would never be able to provide emotional

Article Review

5943 words - 24 pages from dying of AIDS. Or cancer.” A View from the Top 32 Harvard Business Review | January 2008 | hbr.org Grepter to take over the global vaccines market and compete toe-to-toe with a larger rival. Soon Gary, carrying a fresh mug of coffee, re-entered the boardroom accompanied by the CFO and the head of strategic planning, Alan’s boss. The moment of truth had arrived. “Gentlemen,” Gary said, as the four of them took their

Jd Juvenile Delinquency Essay

2692 words - 11 pages broad aims. Most States seek to pro- tect the interests of the child, the fam- ily, the community, or a combination of the three. Nearly all States also in- clude protections of the child’s consti- tutional and statutory rights. Many States have amended their purpose clauses, reflecting philosophical shifts or changes in emphasis in the overall approach to juvenile delinquency. ■ Several states have purpose clauses that are modeled on the

Developing Effective Diabetes Care Interventions In Rural Populations

2991 words - 12 pages , from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2902359 Heisler, M. (2010). Different models to mobilize peer support to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research. Fam Pract June: 27(Suppl. 1), i23-i32. (2009). In L. M. Issel, Health Program Planning and Evaluation: A Practical and Systematic Approach for Community Health, Second Ed. (pp. 335-342