NATIONALISM IN KENYA
Conflict and resentment defined the the colonial experience between the white settlers and native Africans. With Nairobi evolving from a shantytown in the early 1900s into a major urban centre for East Africa, white settlers slowly migrated to the country lured by the prospect of land. They settled in the fertile highlands outside Nairobi, an area later dubbed the "White Highlands." Both the Maasai and the Kikuyu tribes lost large amounts of land to these European settlers. Their resentment grew deeper with each acre lost and the inevitable conflicts would not fully be resolved until independence.
Successful large-scale farming depended to a great degree upon an ...view middle of the document...
Thuku was arrested by the colonial authorities in 1922 and was exiled for seven years. His arrest resulted in the massacre of twenty-three Africans outside Nairobi's Central police station. He was released only after agreeing to cooperate with the colonials, a decision that cost him the leadership of the Kikuyus. This incident united Kenya's African communities and set the stage for the entry of Jomo Kenyatta, a former water meter inspector with the Nairobi Municipal Council, who stepped in and filled the leadership vacuum after Thuku.
Jomo Kenyatta was born in Gatundu; the year of his birth is uncertain, but most scholars agree he was born in the 1890s. He was born into the Kikuyu ethnic group. Named Kamau wa Ngengi at birth, he later adopted the surname Kenyatta (from the Kikuyu word for a type of beaded belt he wore) and then the first name Jomo. Kenyatta was educated by Presbyterian missionaries and by 1921 had moved to the city of Nairobi. There he became involved in early African protest movements, joining the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) in 1924.
In 1928 he became editor of the movement's newspaper. In 1929 and 1931 Kenyatta visited England to present KCA demands for the return of African land lost to European settlers and for increased political and economic opportunity for Africans in Kenya, which had become a colony within British East Africa in 1920.
Kenyatta remained in Europe for almost 15 years, during which he attended various schools and universities, travelled extensively, and published numerous articles and pamphlets on Kenya and the plight of Kenyans under colonial rule. While attending the London School of Economics, Kenyatta studied under noted British anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski and published his seminal work, Facing Mount Kenya (1938).
Following World War II (1939-1945), Kenyatta became an outspoken nationalist, demanding Kenyan self-government and independence from Great Britain. With other African nationalists such as Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Kenyatta helped organize the fifth Pan-African Congress in Great Britain in 1945. The congress, modelled after the four congresses organized by black American intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois between 1919 and 1927 and attended by black leaders and intellectuals from around the world, affirmed the goals of African nationalism and unity.
In September 1946 Kenyatta returned to Kenya, and in June 1947 he became president of the first colony-wide African political organization, the Kenya African Union (KAU), which had been formed more than two years earlier. KAU's efforts to win self-government under African leadership were unsuccessful, however, and African resistance to colonial policies and the supremacy of European settlers in Kenya became more militant.
AFRICAN AND ASIAN AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO THE BRITISH
The Mau Mau Movement
The Mau Mau Movement began among the Gikuyu who shared the same grievances with all other Kenyan peoples. At the same...