INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
GOMBAK, KUALA LUMPUR
RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
PSCI 4710 – SURVEY OF POLITICAL HISTORY
ASNA ASHRAFF SAEDON
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wahabuddin Ra’ees
Department of Political Science IIUM
INTRODUCTORY: | Preface | 3 |
| Introduction | 4 |
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DISCUSSION: | Definition | 6 |
| Timeline | 7 |
| The Struggle for Independence | 8 |
| Nationalism’s Growth and Export | 10 |
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CONCLUSION: | Conclusion | 11 |
| References | 12 |
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In the name of Allah, the most gracious and the most merciful.
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In order to enquire into the cause of the remote little catastrophe an extragalactic historian will land on this earth and consults the libraries and archives which have been preserved, because the technology of nuclear has been designed to destroy people rather than property.
The historian, after some study, will conclude that the last two centuries of the human history are incomprehensible without the understanding of the term ‘nation’. This term appears to express something important but what exactly? Here lies the mystery.
He will read Walter Bagehot who presented ‘nation-building’ but who also observed, with his usual common sense: ‘We know what it is when you do not ask us, but we cannot very quickly explain or define it’. This may be true for Bagehot and for us, but not for extragalactic historians who have not the human experience which appears to make the idea of the ‘nation’ so convincing.
Nations it may have fashioned their Governments,
Governments have paid them back in the same coin.
Joseph Conrad, Under Western Eyes (1911)
Nationalism has become so integral a part of life in Europe today that it is virtually impossible not to identify oneself with a nation state: we think of ourselves as Italians, English, or French; we have been prepared to fight wars to affirm the independence of rights of our nation against what we regard as the threats of other states or tragically other ‘ethnically’ different peoples, such as Serbs and Bosnian Muslims.
Three different elements have become inextricably superimposed in our understanding of the nation state: the nation, as a collective identity; the state as an expression of political independence; and the territory as a geographical area with frontiers demarcating the necessary coincidence between nation and state.
French Revolution paved the way for the modern nation-state. Across Europe radical intellectuals questioned the old monarchical order and encouraged the development of a popular nationalism committed to re-drawing the political map of the continent. The French Revolution, by destroying the traditional structures of power in France and territories conquered by Napoleon, was the instrument for the political transformation of Europe. Revolutionary armies carried the slogan of "liberty, equality and brotherhood" and ideas of liberalism and national self-determinism.
National awakening also grew out of an intellectual reaction to the Enlightenment that emphasized national identity and developed a romantic view of cultural self-expression through nationhood. The key exponent of the modern idea of the nation-state was the German G. W. F. Hegel. He argued that a sense of nationality was the cement that held modern societies together in an age when dynastic and religious allegiance was in decline. In 1815, at the end of the Napoleonic wars, the major powers of Europe tried to restore the old dynastic system as far as possible, ignoring the principle of nationality in favour of...