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Narrow Banking Essay

3549 words - 15 pages

Rol en activiteiten van een bank unsettled account
Om de recente financiële crisis te begrijpen is het onontbeerlijk om de basics van individuele banken en de sector in het algemeen te definiëren. Banken zijn historisch bij de oudste financiële tussenpersonen, ondanks de steeds meer verregaande diversificatie in de sector namelijk de opkomst van andere tussenpersonen. Niet te min blijven de banken een hoeksteen van een continu veranderd financieel systeem. De vorm, structuur, activiteiten en de omgeving hebben echter ook geleid tot diverse typologieën van banken en inhoud van bankoperaties. Deze evoluties zullen we nader onderzoeken door onder meer de twee belangrijkste crisissen van het ...view middle of the document...

Andere definities breiden dit uit met het organiseren van het betalingssysteem en het opzetten van betaalsystemen. In feite is dit de definitie van wat we onder de klassieke commerciële bank verstaan. Some recent trends in commercial banking – Huberto M. Ennis Dergelijke banken genereren drie types van inkomsten uit die activiteiten:
• Het verschil tussen rente–inkomsten en rente-uitgaven (transformatie van deposito’s in kredieten).
• Andere (niet rentegebonden) inkomsten en uitgaven: bijvoorbeeld commissies op betalingsverkeer maar ook loonkosten.
• Voorzieningen en afschrijvingen op kredietverliezen.
In de jaren ‘90 gingen innovaties voor meer en andere inkomsten zorgen. Hierbij werd vooral gezocht naar buitenballansactiviteiten die meer rendeerden maar ook risico inhielden. Het aandeel van die inkomsten groeide in de States al snel van 10% naar 25%. Die commerciële banken gingen zich ook meer en meer segmenteren in functie van het type cliënteel.
• Retail banking
• Business banking
• Private banking
• Corporate banking
• Institutional banking
En ook de distributie werd aangepast: kantoren (bemand en onbemand), pc- en internetbanking, phone- en mobilebanking.
Wat de risicoaspecten van commercial banking betreft: hier zullen we nader ingaan bij de bespreking van regulering en supervisie.
Investment banks zijn er voor investeerders die in fondsen willen investeren, ze spelen de rol van brokers of dealers bij het kopen en verkopen van securities
Ze kunnen een filiaal zijn van een commerciele bank zowel als van een verzekeringsmaatschappij
Na de wet in 1999 mochten commerciele banken terug investment banking doen.
Dus zijn er 2 categorieën die activiteiten van investment banking doen: enerzijds gewone onafhankelijke investment firms en anderzijds investeringsbankendie deel uitmaken van een groot financiele holding (meestal een grote commerciele bank)
Activiteiten van een investeringsbank zijn: underwriting van securities, trading van securities, private placement of securities, ....
Investment banks zijn er voor investeerders die in fondsen willen investeren, ze spelen de rol van brokers of dealers bij het kopen en verkopen van securities. Securities spelen een primordiale rol in de evolutie van de banken en zijn medeverantwoordelijk voor de crisis in 2007. Hieronder scheppen we dan ook duidelijkheid over wat securities zijn en hoe deze in hun werk gaan. Securities uitleggen.
Investeringsbanken kunnen een deel zijn van een commerciele bank zowel als van een verzekeringsmaatschappij. In de verenigde staten werd er in 1933 een wet ingevoerd, namelijk: de “Glass Steagal act”. Deze kunnen we bestempelen als een eerste antwoord onder de vorm van “narrow banking” op een crisis van het financieel systeem. Deze wet werd in 1999 teniet gedaan door de goedkeuring van de “Graham bailey wet”. Na de wet in 1999 mochten commerciele banken terug aan investment banking doen. Het is dan ook aangewezen om voor we ons over de actuele bankencrisis...

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