myself and iBottom of Form
The Scientific Method
Psychology is, like any science, a branch of knowledge that deals with a body of facts systematically arranged and shows the operation of general laws.
In all sciences, including psychology, a special procedure, the scientific method, must be used to collect data to answer a question or to solve a problem. The scientific method not only answers the question at hand but also is used to construct scientific theories. A theory is systematically organized knowledge applicable in a wide variety of circumstances. (The amount of information available in any science is too vast to be useful unless it is organized through the use of theories.) ...view middle of the document...
Some of the more common applications include: psychometrics, learning theory, perception, human development, abnormal psychology, Personality test, Psychological tests.
2. Methods of Data Gathering in Psychology 1.Experiment The experiment is the most useful of all scientific methods because most of the basic facts in psychology are supplied by the results of experimental studies. This method is generally done in a laboratory setting involving many controlled variables.
Socio-experiment -> mostly used studies related to social Psychology. This is an experiment that is conducted in the natural environment instead of a laboratory
This is the most common method. There are two tools a researcher can use in a survey method – questionnaire and interview.
The questionnaire is best used when study requires many respondents. This saves you more time.
The interview is used when the no. of respondents is just small. Interview is also used when respondents cannot read or write.
3.Case Histories and Clinical Studies
This method is used when an intensive investigation about a certain case is needed. In this method, the researcher has to dig into all sorts of records about the subject including hospital, educational, family background and all other necessary data.
Two kinds of Observation method
The researcher has to join the group under study in order to gather deeper and more intensive data.
+Non-Participant Observation / Naturalistic Observation
The researcher is just a plain observer. Oftentimes, the subjects do not know that they are under study.
5. Test Method
This method uses Psychological Test as its instrument.
Examples of Psychological Test are:
- IQ Test
-Free Association Technique -> used to study patients with mental problems.
Ethics- are very important when carrying out any type of psychological research. Before we can begin any research method it is vital that we stick to an ethical code of practice, as we will be dealing with people. Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm..
Heredity VS. Environment - Many aspects of human characteristics (such as height and eye color) are largely genetically determined. Psychology researchers, however, tend to be interested in dimensions that are relatively less determined by genetics—traits that subject more to environmental influences, such as how a person feels, acts, and thinks. Given that the degree of genetic determination appears to vary from one dimension to another (e.g., spatial skills versus language acquisition), how can one determine the relative influences of heredity and environment for various human characteristics, and how can one understand the complex relationship between them?
For example, Javier has two biological daughters who share the same biological...