Multidimensional Lenses on Migration
Dilara Sönmez Middle East Technical University Department of International Relations, #1541077
National and international security has gained new meanings and elements in recent years, especially after Cold War. The changed concept of security has been more and more broadened with accelerated effects of globalization and shocking September 11 events. The new issues of security agenda may be listed as immigration, global terror, climate change, energy, internal violence, human security etc. This article recovers mainly how irregular migration effects national and human security in a multi dimensional framework, from theories to the cases ...view middle of the document...
People who migrate are defined in four categories. ‘Immigrants’ into a country, ‘emigrants’ out of a country, ‘refugees’ into a country because of persecution in homeland country.
Another distinction comes with the legality of migration; while legal immigrants moves into receiver country with the legal permission, illegal or irregular immigrants moves without it. As noted, being a refugee is recognized legally however it can be realized without record.
Motivations of Immigration and Historical Brief
Migrating people moves for a variety of reasons by considering costs and benefits of staying and moving that are factors such well-being, distance, modes of transportation, culture. Push factors of emigrating based on difficulty and pull factors of immigrating based on desirability may include several factors. They may stem from environmental factors like disaster, climate; political factors like war, genocide; economic factors like unemployment, income and lastly cultural factors like freedom of religion or education. These different motivations lead migration process and its consequences. The condition of a migrant entrance into a population may have broad implications for both parties. Therefore, migration experience contains a variety of reasoning, also it will produce a variety of outcomes observable from sociological, political, and economical perspectives. To illustrate, a casual immigration will not have the same migration process as a political refugee. Generally, refugees receive a series of special services from the receiver nation such as emergency shelter, food, and legal aid.
The modern immigration that started in 18th cc including voluntary of forced slave trade reached its peak in 19th cc. People trafficking, namely manning can be categorized in three form; labor migration, refugee migration and urbanization when million of agricultural workers left their homeland and moved into cities that led to unprecedented levels of urbanization in late 18th cc. The encouraged transnational labor migration by industrialization with eased transportation modes reached its peak with the number of three million migrants per year in the early 20th cc into especially Italy, Norway, Ireland and the Quongdong region of China. These extreme flows impacted directly the process of nation-state formation in many ways such as immigration restrictions, diaspora cultures and discourses referring to density of migration towards certain nations, like the American melting pot. According to records, between 1910 and 1970, named as Great Migration, nearly seven millions African-
Americans entered the United States from the Southern United States that blacks faced both poor economic opportunities and a serious political and social prejudice. Beside motivation of industrialization, this century was witnessed a great migratory flow because of politics, religion and war. For instance, after demise of Ottoman Empire, Muslim people migrated from Balkans...