Paper III Public Administration
Topic : Motivational Theories.
Motivation is one of the most important managerial and human factor affecting human behavior, performance and attitude. Motivation has called as “the core of management”. For this reason managers attach great importance to motivation in organizational activities. Effective directing of people leads the organization to effectiveness, both at individual and organizational level.
Definition of motivation:
Motivation is the willingness to exert high level of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual and group need. ...view middle of the document...
Moreover, individuals differ in what motivates them. Therefore, a manager has to analyze and understand variety of needs and has to use variety of rewards to satisfy them. He should not expect overnight results.
* Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Frederick Herzberg and his associates conducted research wherein they interviewed 20 engineers and accountants from nine different companies in Pittsburg area of U.S.A. These executives were asked to recall specific incidents in their experience which made them feel either exceptionally good or exceptionally bad about their jobs. On the basis of their study, Herzberg concluded that there are some job conditions which operate primarily to dissatisfy employees while other job conditions operate primarily to build strong motivation and high job satisfaction. He called these factors hygiene factors and motivating factors respectively
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
These are related with the job content. These factors help to build strong motivation and high job satisfaction. They are also known as satisfiers. Their absence or decrease will affect the level of job satisfaction. These factors are achievement, advancement; work itself, possibility of growth and responsibility. Some of these Motivational Factor’s are:
* The Job itself
* Growth and advancement.
Many of these factors are traditionally perceived by management as motivators but these are really more potent as dissatisfies. These factors provide no motivation to employees but the absence of these factors serves as dissatisfies. These are called “Hygiene Factors” because they support the mental health of employees.
Some of the Hygiene Factors are:
* Wages, salary and other types of employee benefits.
* Company policies and administrative rules that govern the working environment.
* Interpersonal relation with peers, supervisors and subordinates. Cordial relation will prevent frustration and dissatisfaction.
* Working conditions and job security. The job security may be in the form of tenure or it could be supported by a strong union.
Implications of the theory:
If the motivation-hygiene theory holds, management not must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Herzberg wanted to say:
* The job must have sufficient challenge to utilize the full ability of the employee.
* If a job cannot be designed to use an employee's full abilities, then the firm should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has a lower level of skill. If a person cannot be fully utilized, then there will be a motivation problem.
* Goal- Setting Theory
In 1960’s, Edwin Locke established Goal-setting theory of motivation....