Motivation is an important aspect in many organizations. In our organization motivation is a key to the success. When evaluating administrative staff, sales people, and production workers, each department works well utilizing different theories. One theory could not work adequately for all three; therefore, three theories were used. Production workers utilize the Two-factor theory; sales people use Vroom's expectancy theory and the Equity theory works for the administrative staff. Combining all three theories into one organization helps the organization run smoothly, while gaining successful motivation on all levels.
...view middle of the document...
The second phase of Vroom's expectancy theory is for the sales person to realize the different outcomes that can occur with expected performance levels. This is also called instrumentality. To help influence this phase, managers should clarify performance and give positive feedback, or rewards that are consistent with their performance level. If sales people see the goal as unobtainable, then their performance will be low. If they see that they are able to achieve high results and rewards, then they will exude higher performance, which will give them their desired outcome.
The third phase of Vroom's expectancy theory is setting their rewards. This phase is also referred to as the valence phase (2003, p.21). Managers in this phase need to take a look at different motivators that will help the sales person achieve higher performance. The manager should take into consideration the different cultures, and groups that are within the organization.
According to Schermerhorn, Osborn and Hunt, researchers have defined two separate types of rewards. They are extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards (2003, p.22). Extrinsic rewards are when the reward is of monetary value. The sales person is motivated by a possible promotion, or an increase in salary. Intrinsic rewards are positive work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of their performance. They have a feeling of achievement or satisfaction, which is recognized by his or her managers. Sometimes this type of reward can be of monetary value, such as a trip or added time off. Whatever the reward, the manager should be sensitive to the different groups so that they are able to maintain high performance levels.
When combining all three aspects of Vroom's expectancy theory, the outcome will be good if the manager takes into consideration each work effort. If any one of the three factors is low, then motivation in the team or group will be low. The manager needs to clearly define expectations, set standards, recognize individual differences, and allocate the rewards wisely once the desired outcome is given. This is how the expectancy theory works, and is successful for sales people in an organization.
Production workers are different than salespeople and the administrative staff. The production worker has different responsibilities and objectives;
therefore, motivation is also different. The Two-Factor Theory by Herzberg works well in this class of workers.
Herzberg studied motivation by simply asking workers when they felt good about their job and when they felt bad about their work environment. Based on these studies, Herzberg developed the two-factor theory also know as the motivator-hygiene theory by Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, (2003, p. 16).
This theory, like its name states, has two sides or factors. The first is the hygiene factors, which are sources that affect job...