Motivation in the Work Place
Varying employee needs lead to different kinds of motivation. Different kinds of motivation influence employees’ job satisfaction. Employees’ motivation will be affected by factors such as occupation, gender, social culture and organisational structure. This study will attempt to explore the differences in motivation between core-workers and periphery workers, and whether these differences in motivators are distinctive.
The literature revealed that similar motivators may not be necessarily applicable to employees working at different levels but most of the literary work did confirm that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation leads to job satisfaction in the ...view middle of the document...
The increasingly competitive business environment of the 1980s, which continued throughout the early 1990s, remains a dominant factor today (Williams 1998). Most enterprises attempt to improve organisational performance to fit this competitive trend. Poor performance of managers and workers decreases the organisation’s productivity and contributes to slow economic growth. Hence, the effective utilisation of human resources for productivity improvement should be the primary concern of all organisations (Williams 1998). Motivation in organisations as one of human resources managerial practices has been paid more attention in recent years among both practicing managers and organisational researchers.
Previous researchers have directed most of their attention towards the questions like, why people behave as they do on the job and what can be done to influence employees’ work motivation? Several theories of work motivation have been formulated to identify factors that influence work behaviours and factors that contribute to the maintenance and termination of these behaviours (Maslow, 1954; Herzberg, 1966). Although motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects, and is affected by a multitude of factors in the organisation (Kanungo, l994), it is accepted by most scholars and practitioners that thereisa positive relationship between motivation and job satisfaction, individual performance, and physical and mental health. They believe that behavioural influences, such as job satisfaction, have a very important impact on quality of service, organisational commitment and total organisational effectiveness (MacRobert, et al. 1993; Beall 1994; Joseph and Deshpande 1997; cited: Lewis et al.2001; Morgan et al. 1995).
Based on the statements made above, it can be said that most studies focus on investigating what factors motivate employees and whether there is a positive relationship between motivation and behavioural influences. Scholars seldom investigate whether different status can lead to different needs and motivational approaches in the work place. Deci and Ryan (1985) argue that some people will be more likely to experience intrinsic motivation, while others will be more oriented toward the extrinsic motivation. Hence, this research will aim to investigate the need for different motivational approaches in the work place depending of the status of the employees. The main aim and objectives are mentioned in the next section.
Aims and Objectives
Mitchell (1987) concludes that motivation is regarded as an individual phenomenon. Traditional motivation approaches are usually based on the research on individual demand, which not only involves the content theories, but also the process theories. Although modern researchers suggest that the content of work as a main factor can motivate most employees (Deci, 2000), there is no single approach that can work well on all employees. In practice, it is impossible...