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Motivasjon Org Og Ledelse Essay

1272 words - 6 pages

Organisasjonsatferd og ledelse

Eksamensoppgave 2 – motivasjon

Motivasjon er drivkreftene vi har til å utføre en handling som bringer oss nærmere målet vårt, men også hvorfor to individer med likt utgangspunkt yter forskjellig i en lik stilling. Forskning i motivasjon har bakgrunn i at man ønsker å legge til rette slik at man får ned sykefravær, øker produktiviteten og bedrer de sosiale forholdene i bedriften. I sluttsum vil man med dette gjøre dagen bedre for arbeiderene, samt å skape en velfungerende organisasjon.

For moderne organisasjonspsykologi bruker man fire forskjellige motivasjonsteorier som utgangspunkt; behovsteorier, kognitive teorier, sosiale teorier og ...view middle of the document...

De to siste behovsnivåene kalles for overskudds- eller vekstmotiver. Disse er ulike fra de tre første ved at de handler om personligvekst og videreutvikling av personlige egenskaper. Det fjerde nivået kalles for aktelse, at man har et behov for selvrespekt og annerkjennelse. Dette behovet kan oppfylles med å ha en viktig jobb, få anerkjennelse av kollegaer for det arbeidet man gjør eller å ha en sportsbil i oppkjørselen.
På toppen av hierarkiet finner vi selvaktualisering. På dette nivået vil man fylle behovet for å realisere sine iboende kapasiteter. Den beste måten å ha motiverte medarbeidere er nettopp å la dem ha muligheten til å få utløp for sine personlige kapasiteter, da er betingelsene lagt til rette for at personene yter best.

Teorien i sin helhet er basert på at et nivå må oppnås før man når et nytt behovsnivå, imidlertid brister det noe i det moderne samfunnet. Vi ser at for eksempel anorektikere blåser i de fysiologiske behovene de har, for å oppnå status og anerkjennelse. Slik kan vi hevde at modellen er mer dynamisk enn det Maslow hevdet, og vi kan bevege oss både opp og ned i hierarkiet.

Kognitive teorier

I den kognitive teorien, blir det undersøkt om hvorvidt høyere lønn eller bonus gjør at man arbeider bedre. Resultatet av forskning, hvor man måler arbeidet til en gruppe som blir lovet høy bonus og en som får en lav bonus, ser man at det er de med lav bonus som gjør best arbeid. Det eneste man får av arbeiderene ved å betale mer er at de jobber mer ikke bedre. Man hevder at disse resultatene kan forklares gjennom to faktorer; ytre- og indremotivasjon. De ytremotivasjonsfaktorene er for eksempel lønn, bonussystemer eller firmabil. Disse vil bare til en viss grad påvirke hvordan vi gjør det i jobben, og vil ha en større effekt på jobber hvor man har en maskinellfunksjon. Indremotivasjonsfaktorer går på enhvers indreønsker, og det er dette som virkelig er viktig, og riktig, motivasjon. Det kan være for eksempel å ha et ønske om å gjøre verden mer miljøvennlig, spre budskap om Jesus eller å bekjempe fattigdom. Man ser ofte at folk som er med i en organisasjon som for eksempel Bellona har en slik indremotivasjon, og det virker å drive dem mye mer enn noen bonuser eller ekstra fridager på sensommeren. Med dette i bakhodet kan man tenke at de fleste velger å jobbe eller å engasjere seg i en organisasjon som støtter opp om de indremotivasjonene.

Sosiale motivasjonsteorier går på hvordan vi føler oss i forhold til være medarbeidere. I likeverds teorien ser man på sine egne jobb belønninger i forhold til andres. Hvis man går inn i en av to nye stillinger, hvor arbeidsoppgavene og arbeidstiden er lik, vil det naturligvis være demoraliserende om du tjener 300.000 mens din nye kollega med samme utdanning og ansiennitet får 400.000 inn på...

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