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Mordern Medicines Essay

3715 words - 15 pages

CHEMISTRY
CHEMISTRY
(CLASSES XI–XII)

Rationale
Higher Secondary Stage is the most crucial stage of school education because at this stage specialised discipline based, content oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of mostly for pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicines, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, at this stage, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and ...view middle of the document...

• The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the ‘Units’ of the subject matter with proper placement of concepts with their linkages for better understanding. • Emphasis has been on promoting process – skills, problem solving abilities and applications of concepts of Chemistry useful in real life situation for making learning of Chemistry more relevant, meaningful and interesting. • An effort has been made on the basis of feedback, to remove repetition besides reducing the content by suitably integrating the different content areas. • Practical syllabus has two components. There are core experiments to be undertaken by the students in the classroom and will be part of examination while each student will carry out one investigatory project and submit the report for the examination. With this background, the Chemistry curriculum at the higher secondary stage attempts to • promote understanding of basic principles in Chemistry while retaining the excitement in Chemistry; • develop an interest in students to study Chemistry as discipline; • strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage and to provide firm foundation for further learning of Chemistry at tertiary level more effectively;

• develop positive scientific attitude, and appreciate contribution of Chemistry towards the improvement of quality of human life; • develop problem solving skills and nurture curiosity, aesthetic sense and creativity; • inculcate values of honesty, integrity, cooperation, concern for life and preservation of the environment; • make the learner realise the interface of Chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics, Biology, Geology, etc; • equip students to face challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, whether industries and agriculture.

CHEMISTRY CLASS XI
Theory Total Periods 180
(Periods 14)

XI

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

23

Unit II: Structure of Atom

(Periods 16)

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Syllabus for Secondary and Higher Secondary...

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