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Mordern India Essay

1794 words - 8 pages

Modern India
Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company rule in India set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the Company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive ...view middle of the document...

[90] There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.[91] The railway network provided critical famine relief,[92] notably reduced the cost of moving goods,[92] and helped nascent Indian-owned industry.[91] After World War I, in which some one million Indians served,[93] a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a non-violent movement of non-cooperation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.[94] During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[95] The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into two states: India and Pakistan.[96]

Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a sovereign, secular, and democratic republic.[97] In the 60 years since, India has had a mixed bag of successes and failures.[98] It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an activist Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.[98] Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies,[99] and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[98] Yet, India has also been weighed down by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban;[98] by religious and caste-related violence;[100] by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies;[101] and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir.[102] It has unresolved territorial disputes with China, which escalated into the Sino-Indian War of 1962;[103] and with Pakistan, which flared into wars fought in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999.[103] The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998.[104] India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's new nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.
India after in independence Before independence our country was at the mercy of her foreign rulers. They did whatever they liked for the good of their own country. After independence much has been done to improve the condition of the masses. Some of the important achievements of free India made during the last fifty years are as follows.
In the economic field, unprecedented progress has been made. Our five year plans have been successfully completed. Many Multipurpose projects have been taken in...

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