Monotheism Essay

2680 words - 11 pages

Başlıca Dil Bilimi Akımları

Henriette Gezundhajt

Çeviri ve Türkçe’ye Uyarlama: Prof. Dr. Rıza FİLİZOK

I Dil Bilimi ve Dil Bilimi Akımları

Her şeyden önce, dil biliminin içinde birkaç temel akım bulunduğunu göz önünde bulundurmak gerekir. Bu akımların her biri “lisan”ı bir inceleme konusu olarak görür, fakat meseleyi farklı yönlerden ele alır:
İç-dil bilimler (Les linguistiques internes) bağımsız araştırma alanlarıdır. Bu dilbilimler, asıl yapısal dilbilimler (fonctionnalisme, distributionnalisme, psychosystématique, değişik ...view middle of the document...


III Yapısalcılığın “Structuralisme” Konusu

Yapısal dilbilimi ( linguistique structurale), dili ayrıştırılabilir bir yapıdan oluşmuş bir sistem olarak ele alan okulları birleştiren bir akımdır.

. Akımlara bağlı olarak anlam bilimi farklı kategorilere bağlanmaktadır. Kursumuz içinde bundan dolayı farklı değerlendirmeler olacaktır. Aynı şekilde bazı dilbilimciler öğretimde yerleşmiş bulunan morfoloji ve sentaks ayırımı yerine “morpho-syntaxe” terimini tercih etmektedir. Dil her biri kendine özgü disiplinler tarafından incelenen tabakalar halinde şu şekilde bölünmektedir:
|Belirti (traits) |Ses bilgisi (Phonétique) |
|(Yedi temel belirti) |Temel ses birimlerinin (des unités sonores) tasviri |
|Sesbirimler (Phonèmes) |Ses bilimi (Phonologie) |
|(Türkçede 29) |(Dil sistemindeki seslerin görevlerinin incelenmesi) |
|Hece (Syllabe) |Biçim bilimi (Morphologie) |
|(Birkaç yüz) |( Kelimelerin dil bilime ait yapılarının incelenmesi) |
|Kelimeler (Mots) |Sözlükbilimi (Lexicologie) |
|(50 000 civarında, fakat liste eksiksiz değildir.) |(Bir dilin söz dağarcığını “lexique” oluşturan kelimelerin |
| |“vocabulaires” incelenmesi) |
|Önerme (Propositions) |Anlam bilimi (Sémantique) |
| |(anlamlandırmanın “signification” incelenmesi) |
|Cümle (Phrases) |Söz dizimi (Syntaxe) |
|(sınırsız sayıda) |(Cümleyi kuran yapılar “formes” arasındaki birleşmenin “combinaisons|
| |“ ve ilişkilerin “relations” incelenmesi ) |
|Sözce (Énoncés)Söylenmiş cümle |Söyleme (Énonciation) ve Pragmatik (pragmatique) |
|(sınırsız sayıda) |(Bir konuşmacının belli bir durumda, belli şartlarda |
| |gerçekleştirdiği dil üretiminin ve dil algılamasının...

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