Behavior and Opportunity
4. Briefly describe the elements of the formal and informal organization. Give examples of each.
The formal organization is the official, legitimate, and most visible part that enables people to think of organizations in logical and rational ways. Formal organizations, or overt organizations, are known as having set goals and objectives, policies and procedures, job descriptions, financial resources, authority structure, communication channels, and products and services. The informal organization is the unofficial and less visible part of the system. Informal organizations, or covert organizations, deal with beliefs ...view middle of the document...
4. Discuss two ways people learn about organizational behavior.
People can learn about organizational behavior through objective knowledge and skill development. Objective knowledge is developed through basic and applied research and scientific activities. Acquiring objective knowledge requires the cognitive mastery of theories, conceptual models, and research findings. Skill development is the mastery of abilities essential to successful functioning in organizations. Learning about organizational behavior requires doing as well as knowing. Developing skills requires structured practice and feedback.
Challenges for Managers
1. What are Hofstede’s five dimensions of cultural differences that affect work attitudes? Using these dimensions, describe the United States.
Hofstede’s five dimensions of cultural differences that affect work attitudes include individualism versus collectivism, high power distance versus low power distance, high uncertainty avoidance versus low uncertainty avoidance, masculinity versus femininity, and long-term orientation versus short-term orientation. He determined the United States to be the most individualistic country of any that was studied.
The U.S. ranked among the countries with weak power distance; which means people believe that inequality in society should be minimized; they are less threatened by power and are more willing to trust one another. Its rank on uncertainty avoidance means they are concerned with security and tend to avoid conflict. The United States ranked as a masculinity culture; which means assertiveness and materialism are valued (men are expected to be tough, assertive, and decisive; women are expected to be nurturing, modest, and tender). The U.S. is also ranked with a short-term orientation, which means the countries values are oriented toward the past and present (such as respect for tradition and meeting social obligations).
Stress and Well-Being
6. Describe the relationship between stress and performance.
Stress is a great asset in managing legitimate emergencies and achieving peak performance. The stress response provides momentary strength and physical force for brief periods of exertion, which provides a basis for peak performance in athletic competition or other events. Specific stressful activities improve health and enhance a person’s ability to manage stressful demands or situations.
1. What different components of a person’s perceptual screens may distort communication?
The perceptual screens that may distort a person’s communication are age, gender, values, beliefs, past experiences, cultural influences, and individual needs.
Work Teams and Groups
3. Describe what happens in each stage of a group’s development according to Tuckman’s Five Stage Model. What are the leadership requirements in each stage?