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Modern History Essay

3088 words - 13 pages

Topic: The world at the beginning of the 20th century
Notes
Timeline:

1871: Germany wins the Franco-Prussian war, and takes the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.

1882: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy form an alliance called the ‘Triple Alliance’.

1889: ‘The second international’, an international congress meets in Paris.

1898: The Spanish-American war, the Philippines, Guam and Porto-Rico are transferred to the USA.

1899: Boer, settler’s rebel against British rule is South Africa.

1900: The boxer rebellion in China against foreign influence.

1901: President Mc Kindy is assassinated by an anarchist.

1906: The British battleship the dreadnaught is launched, naval ...view middle of the document...

3. Socialist society has no need for centralized governments or bureaucracy.

Trade unionism:
• Opposed by liberal ideology.
• First legal trade unions in Britain in 1820’s.
• Skilled labor was first to unionize successfully.
• Unions banned in Russia and European colonies.
• 1900: Britain 2million, Germany 850,000, France 250000 unionists.

Democracy:
• Based on;
1. Political powers shared by all male citizens.
2. Votes for women not considered.
3. Citizens to vote for parliamentary representatives.
4. Parliament, a responsible and a legislative body.
5. All votes of equal value.
6. Equal electorate districts.
7. No property qualifications for MP’s
8. Payment of members of parliament.
9. Secret ballot.
• Powerful in Britain, Western Europe and the United States.
• Supported by middle class.

Liberalism:
• Political philosophy of the middle classes.
• Based on;
1. End of autocratic government.
2. Extension of political power to middle classes.
3. Freedom of the individual.
4. Civil liberties.
5. Elimination of aristocratic privilege.
6. Careers open to talent.
7. Opposition to democracy, socialism and trade unionism.

Reasons for development of new ideologies:
• New classes demanded political changes; middle class, Liberalism; working class, Democracy; trade unions

The Great Powers

Britain:
➢ Separated from the rest of Europe by the English Channel.
➢ Had been made wealthy in the 19th century by its factories.
➢ Ruled by a constitutional Monarch
➢ Controlled the world’s largest empire.

France:
➢ One of the largest countries in Europe.
➢ Was party industrialized, party agriculture.
➢ France was a republic with a parliament and a large empire.

Austro-Hungarian Empire:
➢ Located in central Europe.
➢ Ruled by an emperor who had more power in his country than any other monarch in Europe.
➢ The empire contained many ethnic groups; Germans, Slavs, and Magyars.
➢ Many of these ethnics were making claims for their own country.
➢ Austria was not industrialized.

Russia:
➢ The largest land empire in the world.
➢ Ruled by an emperor, TSAR.
➢ Controlled by ethnic groups
➢ Most people lived in rural, poor areas.

Germany:
➢ New nation formed in 1871.
➢ Although it had a parliament its Kaiser still had much power in government.
➢ Germany was industrialized, had a strong army.
➢ It was aware that France would want revenge for its defeat in 1871.

Italy:
➢ Also a new nation formed in 1871.
➢ It had a king and a parliament.
➢ North was industrialized.
➢ South was agricultural.
➢ No overseas territory, but desperately wanted some.

Ottoman Empire:
➢ Based on turkey.
➢ In...

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