Mobbing against nurses in the workplace in Turkey
& S. Ayaz2 PhD
1 Specialist, 2 Assistant Professor, Nursing Department, Gazi University Faculty of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey
EFE S.Y. & AYAZ S. (2010) Mobbing against nurses in the workplace in Turkey. International Nursing Review 57, 328–334 Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether the nurses have been exposed to mobbing or not, and to reveal the causes of the mobbing between 3 November 2008 and 31 December 2008. Methods: This research was a mixed method study involving survey and focus group interviews. The sample was calculated using sample calculation ...view middle of the document...
Keywords: Harassment, Mobbing, Nurse, Turkey, Workplace
Mobbing is the activity of a person to force someone out of the workplace through rumour, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting and isolation (Davenport et al. 2003). Emotional harassment behaviours are difﬁcult to determine because they are mostly psychological rather than physical. They are composed of numerous systematic events that are very small and can be unimportant and meaningless when considered in isolation. Usually, the executor is not a single person, and the activity
Correspondence address: Sultan Ayaz, Gazi Üniversitesi Saglık Bilimleri Fakültesi ˘ Hemsirelik Bölümü, 06500 Besevler, Ankara, Turkey; Tel: 0090-312216-26-23; ¸ ¸ Fax: 0090-312216-26-36; E-mail: email@example.com.
is usually prepared secretly, behind closed doors. For this reason, the veriﬁcation of mobbing is practically impossible. However, the victim’s quitting work, making big mistakes or giving extreme reactions because of pressure happen publicly (Baykal 2005). In recent years, people who work in the education, social services and health-care sectors have been increasingly exposed to emotional pressure, both in developed and developing countries (Chappell & Di Martino 2006). Hospitals are crowded and intense workplaces. Hard working conditions, shift working, insufﬁcient wages (especially in government institutions) and injustices in profession advancement can trigger emotional harassment (Davenport et al. 2003). Research shows that nurses
© 2010 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2010 International Council of Nurses
Mobbing against nurses in Turkey
are under more risk of emotional pressure than other health-care professionals (Randle 2003). Desley et al. (2003) have shown that nurses are exposed to emotional harassment more than other workers, and the executors are other health professionals, patient relatives, patients, nurse colleagues and director nurses, consecutively. People who are exposed to mobbing can have insufﬁcient job satisfaction and motivation, high stress levels, sleep disorders, anxieties from undeﬁned causes and blood pressure problems (Özdevecioglu 2003). Victims of mobbing have emotional and ˘ physical health problems (Hecker 2007; Laçiner 2006). Excessive stress in the work area causes pressure, exhaustion and intimidation for all workers at every level. Employees lose their feelings of dependence and faith in the organization. Higher administration levels lose all respect, and the capacity to control relationships and the organizational hierarchy start to lose functionality (Tutar 2004). Emotional pressure is a result of a ‘control culture’. In those institutions that allow the occurrence of emotional harassment, not only is the safety of staff compromised, but also all the potentials and functions of the institutions are hindered (Adams 1997). The Royal College of Nursing (RCN 2002) stated that many nurses are exposed...