Modern Language Association as of 2009
General Format/Reference List: Basic Rules
Margins must be all one inch around
Font must be Times New Roman size 12
Lines are double spaced
And indent to a paragraph is one tab/five spaces
There are two spaces after any end punctuation
Commas use one space after them
Works Cited Page
Has its own page at the end of the paper
Continue page numbering from the body of the paper
Center the title “Works Cited”
Alphabetize entries by the author’s last name
If no author, alphabetize by the title (ignore A, An, The)
Use a hanging indent
In-Text Citations: The Basics: Author/Authors
An in-text citation is the author's last name and ...view middle of the document...
S. parks.1 Abbey also notes that tourists destroy parks by removing items from the natural habitat. 2
The first footnote or endnote will have full bibliographic information
The ones after that will have only the author’s name and page number
1 Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness (New York: Ballantine Books, 1968) 25-27.
Subsequent references would be
2 Abbey 44-46.
Top left corner should have a heading that is double-spaced.
First name Last name
Date :(Day Month, Year)
No extra space above or below the title
Title is in the same font as the rest of the paper, not boldface or enlarged.
Insert a page number in the header spot of the document. Then type your last name before the page number, and it will appear on every page in the top left corner.
Seriation is a technique to itemize or enumerate the parts to a series or an argument. This can be helpful when the parts are complex, elaborate, or disparate. It is particularly useful in constructing a transition paragraph to introduce a series of topics. Chicago style refers to this as a process of enumeration.
A series or list of terms or phrases can be introduced following a colon: (1) marked by numbers in parentheses; (2) to enumerate a series of topics; (3) especially when the topics differentiated are complex, lengthy, or disparate. The MLA Handbook is silent on this practice, but recent papers in PMLA also use numbers.
If each element in the series requires a separate paragraph, these are set flush with the left margin with each paragraph indented and numbered appropriately. An introductory clause or sentence ending with a colon typically introduces the series:
This form of seriation is useful in detailing and summarizing an argument, or perhaps the results of a research study. Dr. Abel Scribe PhD MLA Style Sheet - Fall 2006 5
Each element in the series may contribute to the general topic with extensive commentary.
But as a practical matter, this form of seriation is not particularly common in research papers. When the elements require this form of elaboration it is more common to set them under their own subheadings in the text, perhaps following sentence seriation in a transition paragraph under a major heading.
No Bullets! The use of bullets (heavy dots) in place of enumeration is sometimes resorted to, but these may be considered cumbersome, especially in scholarly work.
Reference List: Book/Reference List: Author/Author
Book with one author
Author’s last name, First name and Middle initial. Italicize Title. Publication Location: Publishing Company, Year. Print.
Book with two or three authors
First author’s last name, First name and Middle initial, Second author's First name and Last name, and Third author's First name and Last name. Italicize Title. Publication Location: Publishing Company, Year. Print.