Dr Alf Crossman
Key Areas of Focus
• Division of Labour
• Adam Smith
• General Principles of Management • Scientific Management
• Frederick Winslow Taylor
• Henri Fayol
• Max Weber
• To explore the nature of classical organization theory • To become familiar with the key classical theorists’ work • To understand the principles and impact of:
• Bureaucracy • Management
• To understand the principles and impact of:
• Division of labour • Scientific management/Taylorism • Fordism
• To explore the arguments surrounding ...view middle of the document...
General Principles of Management
14. Esprit de corps Union is strength 13. Initiative: (of all) 12. Stability of personnel tenure 11. Equity (not justice) 10. Order: (material/social) 9. Scalar chain of authority 1. Division of work 2. Authority and responsibility 3. Discipline 4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction
6. Subordination of interests 7 7. Remuneration of personnel
8. Centralization (decentralization)
Characteristics of Weberian Bureaucracy
1. Work/job specialization 6. Impersonality and impartiality 2. Hierarchy and authority
5. Rules and procedures
3. Employment and career
• Weber held the view there was one best was to structure an organization. • Distinguished three types of authority:
• Traditional: the belief the ruler has the right to rule. • Charismatic: the belief the leader has a special, unique virtue. • Legitimate: based on formal written rules which have force of law.
• Weber believed that legitimate authority was more efficient. • Legitimate authority is more compatible with bureaucracy.
The Kafka Index
• France has designed a red tape buster called the ‘Kafka Index’. It is designed to measure the complexity of a project or law against its usefulness to cut red tape. • The index--referring to Franz Kafka's The Trial, which describes one man's fight against a nightmarish bureaucracy--is a scale of one to 100 measuring how many hurdles, from forms to letters or phone calls, are needed to win state permits or aid for a project. • The data obtained by this revolutionary index will be used to simplify bureaucratic procedures.
• Attributed to the work of Frederick Winslow Taylor • Maximum prosperity for the employer
• Elimination of waste
• Time • Effort • Capital
• Based on work study techniques (time and motion) • Attempt to reduce ‘systematic soldiering’
• Management and worker seen as interdependent
• Weber – Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
• work as a disciplined collaboration
5 Principles of Scientific Management
1. Clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers
5. Surveillance of workers through the use of hierarchies of authority 4. Training of the selected worker to perform the job in the specified way
2. Use of scientific methods to determine the best way of doing the job 3. Scientific selection of the person to the newly designed job
F. W. Taylor
In Search of the Efficient Worker –...