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Migration Essay

2250 words - 9 pages

1.
Introduction
More than 100,000 years ago the first modern humans left Africa and began to colonize the world. Since then human history is also a history of migration. Migration has always been a strong impetus towards human development, these days however migration is often seen as problem or threat.
Migration is defined as the permanent change of residence of a person or group. It is a natural social phenomenon. Humans have colonized the entire world and penetrated its remotest areas. Migration is taking place within very different contexts: f.e. military conquest, refugees, expulsion or enslavement. But migrants have also traveled in search of economic opportunities, new settlement ...view middle of the document...

In addition there's a strong migration within Europe. This is promoted by the EU's principle of free movement: citizens of the EU are allowed to live in any EU member-state without any restrictions.

However, if we look at refugees we see that the situation is a little different. They very often find refuge in their neighbour’s countries.

2.
Migrations due to refugees
The UN Convention about the status of refugees, which gave refugees their official status, dates from after the Second World War, in 1951, when millions of people in Europe found themselves stateless. The term ‘refugee’ is usually used to describe people who were persecuted on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, ethnic group or political conviction in their country of origin. Roughly, it designates people whose freedom or lives are in danger. Because of international conventions, they have a right to be protected by foreign countries. Moreover, nations living at peace and in stable economic conditions are asked to show their solidarity with measures such as the temporary admission of displaced people, peace missions, material and reconstruction aid, etc.

The United Nation Refugee Agency, recently released their latest data dated from january 2011. They were 10,5 millions official refugees in the world and 27,5 millions IDP (internally displaced people). The refugee problem is a global issue because the main countries of origin and destinations are among the poorest in the world. Indeed, since 1980, the country that produces the most refugees is Afghanistan and the continent with the highest number of refugees is Africa. We often assume that refugees try to move to industrialized countries in Europe or North America, but this is far from true. In fact, Pakistan and Iran are the countries receiving the most refugees.
The majority of refugees wait many years for a permanent solution to their exile. The solution for them during that time is to live in a camp, witch is more a political solution than a human one considering that many camps are highly predisposed to violation of rights, like physical or sexual abuse. The UN Refugee Agency considers 3 principals solutions to the exile: return to the country of origins, integration in the country where refugees are living or resettlement in another country. The agency favours the two last solutions as the first one is hardly possible when the conflict is still present. However, contrary to one might think, the return to the country of origins is often chosen by refugees for reasons like family, economy, culture or something else, and that, even if the country haven't change. However, in some case, like in Bosnia, Sri Lanka and Kosovo, the country really puts effort for refugees to come back once the conflict is over.

Even if we often talk about refugees, IDP, which stands for Internally Displaced Peoeple, are a lot more. We count more than 27...

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