1. Name the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle in order and state the major events of
Follicular phase: an egg matures.
Ovulation: egg released from ovary.
Luteal: egg goes to uterus
Meses: endometruiem breaks down.
2. Name the 4 hormones of the menstrual cycle and give the function of each
hormone. Name the stage each hormone is at its highest level.
FSH: causes egg to mature; follicular
LH: causes mature egg to release; ovulation
Estrogen: thickens endometruim; luteal
Progestrone: keeps endometruim filled with nutrients and blood; luteal
3. Place the following stages of fetal development in order and define each stage:
fetus - zygote - embryo - blastocyst.
Zygote: where egg and sperm meet and starts to split the cell
Blastocyst: multicelled zygote thats hollow
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Amniocentists: tests aminotic fluid for disorders
CVS: tests placenta for disorders.
Ultrasound: sound waves that takes pictures of the fetus.
6. Name and describe what happens in the 3 stages of birth.
Stage 1 Labor; when the cervix softens and contractions pushes the baby down slowly.
Stage 2 Birth; The actuall delivery of the baby.
Stage 3 Afterbirth; When the mother needs to push out the placenta.
7. How many trimesters are there in a pregnancy? How many weeks is a total
pregnancy? Name the developmental changes in the fertilized egg during
trimester 2 and 3.
There are 3 trimesters in a 40 week period. the facial fetures come out like hair, hands, feet, starts to move, and becomes sensitive to light and sound.
8. What is the function of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic sac?
Placenta: holds the embryo to the uterus. Also filters out chemicals and pathogens.
Umbilical cord: attaches placenta to endometrium and gives it blood and oxygen.
Amniotic sac: fluid sac that protects and nurishes baby.
9. What is an Apgar score? Name 5 functions it rates.
Tests to see if the baby is ok or not. 5 functions it rates are: heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, skin color, moving and crying.
10. Name and describe the 2 types of twins.
Identical: the same egg that split into two embryos.
Fraternal: two different eggs that were fertilized around the same time.
11. What is an ectopic pregnancy and toxemia?
Ectopic pregnancy is when the blastocyst attaches to the fallopian tube.
Toxemia is when you have high blood presure and it kills you and the baby.
12. What is the difference between a still birth and a miscarriage?
a miscarriage is a natural event when the zygote, blastocyst, embryo, or fetus dies naturally at anytime during pregnancy.
a still birth is when the fetus dies before or during pregnancy and you still have to give birth to the dead fetus.