Memory Retention This Essay Was Designed To Give Background On The Information Processing Approach Of Cognition

1437 words - 6 pages

To effectively study memory it is first necessary to categorize different types of memory. There are dozens of ways to divide the specific types of memory. These concise categories all have very different characteristics and the acknowledgement of different types of memory makes the broad topic more manageable. First, there may be a distinction made between long term memory, short term memory, and working memory. Within the long-term memory, there are two main divisions: semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memories contain knowledge regarding the meanings of words, symbols, and algorithms. Episodic memories, on the other hand, include information of a personal nature. These memories ...view middle of the document...

It would be a mistake to interpret the curves of Galton-Crovitz experiments as frequencies. Instead, the Galton-Crovitz cueing method measures a probability density function of memory age.By administering this same technique to a 59-year-old man several similarities were illustrated when compared to previous studies regarding Galton-Crovitz experiments. 10-cue words were used: 5 emotion words (happy, sad, disgusted, angry, and relieved) and 5 non-emotion words (bananas, dog, rain, beer, and vacation).Most individuals possess a vast number of autobiographical memories, even though they are not necessarily accurate reports of our life events. Autobiographical memories, or personal event memories, are altered by many factors indicated by the graph below, including: age, or childhood amnesia and age at onset of memory, and the level of emotion that was experienced at the time when the event occurred.The respondent in this study indicated that the majority the responses given were of "average" consequentiality. The only memories that were deemed to be of extra ordinary significance were cued by the words happy, sad, and angry. Interestingly enough, these exact three cue words were the most readily remembered and frequently thought about. Much more deliberation was put forth in the cue words of banana and beer than any of the other cue words. Again, these findings can be attributed to age and level of emotion associated with each memory.The development of memory occurs simultaneously with the awakening of consciousness. As we age and become more aware of our own existence and our environment, memory becomes more and more important. Eventually, from basic memory, we develop different modalities of memory: intellectual, practical, and autobiographical. In general, the older a child becomes, the more readily they can remember and they develop their unique personality based on what they recall. Although memory may not always be of the utmost importance, it is one of our fundamental talents that develops only with maturation, and in a sense cannot be pushed.The age at which memory first develops can vary for each individual. However, it has been shown that it is very uncommon to have memories proceeding the age of two years. Most typically the memory starts to develop between 36 and 60 months with 24 months being the cut off point. Furthermore, a reminiscence bump of memory recollection (although not greatly indicated in this study) is evident between the ages of 10 and 30. Recent memories are also recovered more easily, as indicated by the forgetting curve starting at age 40 to present.The period in which we are not encoding long-term memories is known as infantile amnesia. The common explanation for this phenomenon is that we store and access our memories through language, and since babies have no language for recording their experiences it is impossible to develop a narrative, which is required in autobiographical memory. For this reason, all...

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