History 110a MWF 10-10:50AM
Chapter 11- Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase
The Romans created a centralized government, legal system and means of bureaucracy starting with the Etruscans that dominated Italy from the 8th to 5th century B.C.E. The Roman republic had elected representatives and a general republic constitutions of two consuls: civil and military. Consuls were elected by an assembly, dominated by the patricians (civilians). The senate usually advised the consuls and ratified major decisions. Both senate and consul represented the interests of these patricians.
However, the Roman empire shifted from a Republic government to an empire shortly after their republican reign because of imperial expansion and domestic problems. Many military commanders recruited rural and poor civilians who also happened to be intensely loyal to their commanders and the civil war cause. Furthermore, the expansion of the republic prompted Rome to become a ...view middle of the document...
Furthermore, the Roman empire was the first people to use concrete; they were highly skilled in engineering and construction of various buildings and projects.
Julius Caesar was a very population social reformer and conqueror who eventually centralized control in Rome in 49 B.C.E. Julius Caesar claimed the title of, “dictator for life,” creating much conflict and was assassinated in 44 B.C.E. It would later be Octavian who brought civil conflict to an end. Under Octavian, there was a continuous expansion and integration of the empire into the Mediterranean Basin, West Eurto Kush. In this Roman empire, the idea of Pax romana was appreciated for more than two centuries. Pax romana is the idea of Roman Peace. During this time, Romans engineered well made roads and postal systems. They even implemented a Roman law-tradition known as the twelve tables.
Owners of latifundia (plantations worked by slaves) specialized products for export. There were numerous trade with the Mediterranean which eventually became a Roman lake. Roman navies also helped to keep the seas largely free of pirates. Rome served as a city of politics and economics. The city of Rome had numerous attractions such as baths, pools, gyms, circuses, stadiums and even amphitheatres which contributed to their wealth.
The Pater Familias was a tradition of the oldest male in the family governing a family; this is a tradition appreciated by the Romans. However, women also had significant influence in their families. Many women supervised family businesses and wealthy estates. However, within this society, the rich were extremely rich with palatial houses and lavish banquets. On the other hand, cultivators and the urban masses lived at subsistence levels.. The poor became a serious issue in Rome and slavery became one-third of the population.
Ultimately, the Greeks influenced the Roman Republic and architecture. Roman deities featured gods and goddesses. Furthermore, Roman roads served as highways for religious spread. However, monotheistic Jews considered Roman deities to be blasphemy. This begins the introduction of Jesus--a charismatic Jewish teacher who taught devotion to God and love for human beings and this leads to the rapid growth of early Christianity.