This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Mean Integral And General Projection Functions

517 words - 3 pages

Projection functions are specific types of geometric feature-based approaches that are used in finding intensity variation in an image and extracting the feature vectors. Geng et al. [23] used the variance projection function for iris localization. Despite the wide application of VPF and MIPF (Mean Integral Projection Function), both have their limitations. MIPF will fail when vertical and horizontal summations of the elements in searching area are unchanged, while VPF will fail in case of the same variance and different mean of the elements. Therefore, the landmarks that have relatively high contrast cannot be properly extracted. To overcome these problems, a new projection function which we called General Projection Function (GPF) is proposed by Bastanfard and Dehshibi []. ...view middle of the document...

To identify the problem first must have an accurate definition about projection functions.
In the linear algebra, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that P2 = P, i.e. it is idempotent. More precisely, an orthogonal projection operator on a vector space is any operator that maps each vector into its orthogonal projection on a hyper-plane (line in ℝ2 and plane in ℝ3) through the origin. (Refer to Figure 1a)

Figure 1(b) demonstrates that a projection functions is not one-to-one. Therefore, all distinct points on the same vertical line are mapped into the same point in the hyper-plane. This defect causes loss of structure in data and the feature extraction process may face problems. Figure 2 shows the result of applying projection function to an image X. As it is obvious, the main horizontal change in the picture occurs in line 3, but the projection cannot highlight that. The proposed method, Linear Principal Transformation, overcomes this weakness. LPT is a linear transformation, which maps a vector space V into a vector space W and highlights the main changes in the image.

3. LPT: Feature Localizer in N-Dimensional Image Space

In [], fundamental challenges in the extraction of facial features are summarized in two issues including accuracy and power. Eckhardt et al. [] mention that many feature extraction frameworks have been proposed so far, nonetheless, an algorithm that was appropriate for the operating environment, has not been provided. Those algorithms that focus on the power can estimate the position of features in different image conditions with low accuracy. In contrast, algorithms that concentrate on accuracy can extract the features of interest very effective, the number of false positive is high.

Other Papers Like Mean Integral And General Projection Functions

Gis Book Chapter 1 Answers Essay

832 words - 4 pages massage about the projection information. Then, we used several tool functions to change given stream and elevation data into appropriated and realistic patterns such as changing the stream color to blue. Orders between the background (an elevation map) and foreground (stream lines) are considered in this section. Then, we did the Spatial Analysis step with the elevation data (emidalat). The last step, we learned how to save a created file in an Arcmap (mxd) format.

Izypay Business Plan Essay

968 words - 4 pages of the policy of dematerialization and modernization of the economy by the reduction of payment made by cash we have been living a tendency to dematerialization of transactions within the industry, where it is only three majors (Total, Oilibya, Tradex) who are offering an electronic mean of payment to the end-users (car owners). The ‘independents’ who are almost 15 are let aside because they cannot acquire a solution or do not know what to do

Calculus Mathematics

5651 words - 23 pages Calculus From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the branch of mathematics. For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). Topics in Calculus Fundamental theorem Limits of functions Continuity Mean value theorem [show]Differential calculus [show]Integral calculus [show]Vector calculus [show]Multivariable calculus Calculus (Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics

Health Promotion

1060 words - 5 pages Health Promotion Pamela McFall Grand Canyon University: Family-Centered Health Promotion November 10, 2013 Health promotion as stated by Chambers & Thompson (2008, pg. 131), “Within the health promotion movement, empowerment has come to focus on promoting equality in health and public participation in decisions affecting health. Empowerment has come to mean a process by which: individual people are encouraged to assert their own

Tqm Proposal

3894 words - 16 pages strategies in the hospitality industry (Raj Kumar, 2005), with service quality being an important factor for growth and survival is an integral part to achieve success. It has been well accepted by managers and quality practitioners as a change management quality approach (Arumugam et al., 2009). TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to meet customer needs and organizational goals. This research proposal analyses the benefits of implementing TQM and


1076 words - 5 pages In order to design and development an integrated state-of-the art human resources information system, the initial step is to define Riordan’s business needs and its current technical resources. Riordan’s ERP system was installed in 1992 and independent from its branch offices. This system is an integral part of the finance and accounting application. Riordan employs over 550 people and has offices located in California, Michigan, Georgia, and

The Service Blueprinting for a Cinema

583 words - 3 pages HW#1 1. The service blueprinting for a cinema. Line of Internal Interaction BACKSTAGE CONTACT PERSON Line of Visibility ONSTAGE CONTACT PERSON Line of Interaction SUPPORT PROCESSES F Guide and Lead Tickets Check Snacks Sales Great and Sell Tickets F Ticket Booking System Inventory System F Clean Project and Show Movies Projection Equipment F 2. (i) The cinema, Paradise Cinema, is located in the Newport Mall in


921 words - 4 pages dvertising a product means to inform the customers of the brand and the services provided by them. It is the attempt to send information to people to convince them to spend their money with a certain company’s product. The means of advertising can be through any of the senses, sight , sound or even smell (popcorn smell in theaters). Advertising forms an integral part in making the product known. Therefore, advertising today has become extremely


582 words - 3 pages mobile phone market was caught sleeping. Nokia has since then struggled to be a part of the fast growing smartphone market, but efforts have been fruitless leaving Nokia with a decrease of smart phone sales of 25% between 2010 and 2011, and inJune 2011 Nokia was overtaken by Apple as the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume. Why: 2. General evaluation: market size, growth and share The smartphone market is big - and growing fast

Farm Journalism

1093 words - 5 pages Agriculture and allied subjects General Journalism General 2. Approach Segmental, integral Holistic 3. 4. Audience Reporter Farming community Person having background on agriculture Whole community Anybody who has interest 5. 6. Information base Variety Mostly research Mostly don't exist Facts and view Exist 7. 8 9. Reliability of information Motto Language High Service Restricted

Cell Membrane

1833 words - 8 pages membrane also contains proteins that act as sensors of external signals allowing the cell to change its behavior in response to environmental cues; these protein sensors, or receptors, transfer information rather than ions or molecules across the membrane. [pic] THE STRUCTURE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE All biological membranes have a common general structure: each is a very thin film of lipid and protein molecules

Related Essays

How Facial Feature Extraction Works Essay

980 words - 4 pages not yet a solved problem. Due to this agreement, we concentrated our method on eye features localization. The proposed method is a linear one-to-one transform which works on an n-dimensional image space. The subsequent discussion has been organized into the following six sections: Section II explains the background of projection functions and their defects, Section III focuses on definition of the new n-dimensional space for representing an image

Buet Wre Syllabus Essay

5652 words - 23 pages involving redox reactions, determination of Cu, Fe and Ca volumetrically, determination of Ca and Mg in water. Math 131: Differential and Integral Calculus 3.00 Credit, 3 hrs/week Differential calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability. N-th derivatives of standard functions. Leibnit’z theorem. Rolle’s theorem, Mean value theorem. Expansion in finite and infinite forms. Indeterminate form. Partial differentiation. Euler’s theorem. Tangent and

Gsl Scientific Library Essay

4796 words - 20 pages Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Polynomial Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References and Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 7 Special Functions

Training And Development Essay

2063 words - 9 pages concerned with related enhancement of general knowledge & understanding of non-technical organization functions c. Training is Mostly for non-managers whiledevelopmentis for managers &executives d. Training focuses on current jobs while development prepares for future jobs e. Training focuses on short-term gainswhile Development focuses on long-term accruals f. Training Is job-oriented process & is vocational in nature while Development is