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Marketing Global Essay

1907 words - 8 pages

MARKETING GLOBAL

RESUME
MERANCANG DAN MENGELOA STRATEGI
PEMASARAN GLOBAL

Disusun Oleh:
REZA ASHARY
1207030002

PROGRAM PASCASARJANA MAGISTER MANAJEMEN
UNIVERSITAS ISLAM SYEKH YUSUF
2013
Industri global adalah industri yang didalamnya posisi strategis pesaing dala pasar geografis atau nasional utama dipengaruhi secara mendasar oleh possi global mereka secara keseluruhan.
Perusahaan global adalah suatu perusahaan yang beroperasi dilebih dari satu negara serta menangkap keunggulan litbang, logistik, pemasaran, dan keuangan dalam biaya dan reputasinya yang tidak tersedia bagi pesaing domestik murni.
Beberapa faktor yang dapat menarik suatu perusahaan ke arena internasional :
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* Negara asing mungkin mengubah hukum perdagangannya dengan cara yang tidak menguntungkan, mendevaluasi mata uangnya atau mengalami revolusi politik dan menyita milik asing.
* Karena adanya keuntungan dan resiko yang bertentangan, perusahaan biasanta tidak bertindak sampai suatu peristiwa mendorong mereka ke arena internasional. Seseorang eksportir domestik, importir asing, pemerintah luar negeri, meminta perusahaan untuk menjual ke luar negeri. Atau perusahaan dibebani dengan kelebihan kapasitas dan harus menemukan pasar tambahan unuk produknya.

MENENTUKAN PASAR MANA YANG DIMASUKI
Dalam memutuskan untuk ke lur negeri, perusahaan harus mendefinisikan tujuan dan kebijakan pemasaran internasionalnya, pada umumnya lebih masuk akal untuk beroperasi di sedikit negara dengan komitmen yang lebih dalam dan penetrasi di tiap negara. Ayal dan Zif menyatakan bahwa sebuah perusahaan harus memasuki lebih sedikit negara jika :
* Biaya masuk ke pasar dan mengendalikan tinggi
* Biaya adaptasi produk dan komunikasi tinggi
* Ukuran dan pertumbuhan populasi dan pendapatan tinggi di negara-negara awal yang dipilih, dan
* Perusahaan asing yang dominan dapat membuat hambatan masuk tinggi.
Perusahaan juga harus memutuskan jenis negara yang dipertimbangkan, daya tarik negara dipengaruhi oleh produk, faktor geografis, pendapatan dan populasi, iklim politik dan faktor-faktor lain.
Secara umum, negara-negara kandidat seharusnya diperingkat dulu berdasarkan tiga kriteria utama, yaitu daya tarik pasar, keunggulan kompetitif, dan resiko.

MENENTUKAN BAGAIMANA MEMASUKI PASAR
Setelah perusahaan memutuskan untuk mencapai suatu negara tertentu, ia harus menentukan cara masuk yang terbaik. Pilihan luasnya adalah ekspor tidak langsung, ekspor langsung, lisensi usaha perdagangan dan investasi langsung.

Ekspor tidak langsung
Yaitu mereka bekerja lewat perantara independen untuk mengekspor produk mereka, ada 4 jenis perantara:
1. Pedagang ekspor berbasis domestik (membeli produk produsen dan kemudian menjualnya di luar negeri)
2. Agen ekspor berbasis domestik (mencari dan menegosiasikan pembelian luar negeri dan mendapat komisi)
3. Organisasi kooperatif (melaksanakan kegiatan ekspor atas nama beberapa produsen dan sebagian dibawah kendali administratif mereka. Sering digunakan oleh produsen produk primer)
4. Perusahaan manajemen ekspor (setuju untuk mengelola kegiatan ekspor suatu perusahaan dengan bayaran tertentu)

Ekspor tidak langsung memiliki 2 keuntungan, pertama, melibatkan sedikit investasi, perusahaan tidak perlu membentuk departemen ekspor, tenaga kerja penjualan di luar negeri, atau sejumlah hubungan luar negeri, kedua melibatkan sedikit resiko karena perantara pemasaran internasional membawa keterampilan dan pelayanan dalam hubungan itu. Penjual biasanya membuat lebih sedikit kesalahan.

Ekspor langsung
Pada akhirnya perusahaan mungkin memutuskan untuk menangani sendiri ekspornya, dengan beberapa cara :
...

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