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Marketing Essay

2091 words - 9 pages

Content
Content………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………2
2.0 Background………………………………………………………………………2
3.0 Presentation of options……………………………………………………………3
3.1Desalination……………………………………………………………………3
3.2Water reuse…………………………………………….………………………3
4.0 Requirements………………………………………………………………………3
4.1 Cost……………………………………………………………...……………3
4.2 Environment…………………………………………….……………………4
4.3 Sustainability…………………………………………………………………5
5.0Comparison of options…………………………………….………….……………6
5.1 Cost……………………………………………………………………………6
5.1.1 Desalination……………………………………….……….……………6
5.1.2 Water reuse…………………………………………..…………………6
5.2 ...view middle of the document...

Kuwait has 17,820 square kilometres in total area and over 1.5 million in total population. Kuwait has a desert climate that it characterised by a long, dry, hot summer, with temperatures reaching more than 45℃with frequent sandstorms, and a cooler winter, with temperatures even falling below 4℃. The rainy season extends from October to May. Over an area of about 100 square kilometres annual rainfall is less than 100 millimetres, and others remaining between 100 and 300 millimetres. In recent years, the rainfall has decreased to an average of between 106 and 134 mm per year (Panikkar, 2007).

In Kuwait, the local people almost uses ground water, desalination and treated wastewater (Fadlelmawla, 2005).

3.0 Presentation of options
3.1 Desalination
In Middle East countries, the fresh water resource is very scarce. To over come the water shortage issue, one source is by desalination, taking the salt out of salt water to make it drinkable (Al-Dousari, 2009). Moreover, desalination is the most popular method to get the fresh water in the Middle Eastern countries and North Africa. In Arabian Gulf, it has its own desalination apparatus to get the fresh water (Khabbaz, 2011). Specifically, approximate 60% of the area’s potable water needs is satisfied by desalination, more than 50% of the world total desalination capacity is located around the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea (Darwish et al. 2011).

3.2 Water reuse
Kuwait uses “ultra filtration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration at Sulaibiya plant, which is the world’s largest membrane-based water reclamation facility. The rest of the generated wastewater (40%) is treated up to the tertiary level (rapid sand filtration and chlorination) by the three remaining wastewater plants employing conventional activated sludge processes” (Al-Anzi et al. 2012). The reused water main used to agricultural irrigation, landscaping and the afforestation areas (Razzaque, 2005).

4.0 Requirements
4.1 Cost
According to a Report of Capital Standards (CSR), it stated that Kuwait is a small, relatively open economy with proven crude oil reserves of about 96 billion barrels (15.3 km3), for example, about 10% of world reserves. Petroleum accounts for 43% of GDP, 87% of export revenues, and 75% of government income (2011). According to the figure1 (2012), it shows that the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Kuwait was worth 176.59 billion dollars in 2011, and it total grew from 2004 to 2012. It means that Kuwait has enough money to produce the fresh water.

Figure1. Kuwait GDP

Source: Trading Economics, 2012.

4.2 Environment
Obviously, the environment issue is the essential of every industry. Water shortage is the impact of the climate changes and the population increased. In addition, the environment damaged is the main cause of climate changes. As a result, it is no doubt that the environment issue must be considered requirement.

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