Marketing Essay

1696 words - 7 pages

chapter two
The Evolution of Management Thought

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e

Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserv

The Evolution of Management Theory

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Scientific Management Theory

Evolution of modern management began towards end 19th century due to the outcome of the industrial revolution

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Steam Engine by Watt (1763)

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Spinning Jenny by Hargreaves (1764)

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Job Specialization and the Division of Labor
Adam Smith (18th century economist) – Observed that firms manufactured pins in one of two different ways: - Craft-style—each worker did all 18 steps/ tasks. - Production—each worker specialized in ...view middle of the document...

• Specialized jobs became very boring, dull. • Workers could purposely “underperform.”

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Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924)
US Building Contractor & Consultant

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Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972)
US Engineer & Consultant

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Contribution of the Gilbreths
1. Break up and analyze every individual action necessary to perform a particular task into each of its component actions 2. Find better ways to perform each component action

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Contribution of the Gilbreths
3. Reorganize each of the component actions so that the action as a whole could be performed more efficiently-at less cost in time and effort

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Administrative Management Theory
• Administrative Management – The study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness.
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Administrative Management Theory
Max Weber –Developed the principles of bureaucracy as a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.

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Max Weber (1864-1920)
German Sociologist

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Weber’s Principles of Bureaucracy
1) A manager’s formal authority derives from the position he holds in the organization. 2) People should occupy positions because of their performance, not because of their social standing or personal contacts.

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Weber’s Principles of Bureaucracy
3) The extent of each position’s formal authority and task responsibilities and it’s relationship to other positions should be clearly specified. 4) Authority can be exercised effectively when positions are arranged hierarchically, so employees know whom to report to and who reports to them.

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Weber’s Principles of Bureaucracy
5) Managers must create a well-defined system of rules, standard operating procedures, and norms so they can effectively control behavior .

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Rules, SOPs and Norms
• Rules – formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goals • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task • Norms – unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations

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Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
French Mining Engineer & Theorist

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Fayol’s Principles of Management
• Division of Labor: allows for job specialization. – jobs can have too much specialization leading to poor quality and worker dissatisfaction. • Authority and Responsibility – both are required. • Unity of Command – Employees should have only one boss. – Otherwise, confusion, duplication, delays, escapism etc
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Fayol’s Principles of Management
• Scalar chain • “The chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest”. • Every orders, instructions, messages, requests, explanation etc. has to pass through Scalar chain. • But, for the sake of convenience & urgency, this path can be cut shirt and this...

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