INTO Newcastle University
INU 3506 Management and Organization
Seminar Tutor: John Timney
Name of Student: Muyi Peng
Student Number: b1028149
Date: 15/ 3/ 2010
Word Count: 981
The systematic development of management thinking is viewed, generally, as spanning from the end of the nineteenth century with the emergence of large industrial organizations. Management theories consist of two group—classical management theory and human relations theory. In this essay, the nature of the “Classical” and “Human Relations” approaches to management will be described at first and then bring out the differences and similarities between ...view middle of the document...
By contrast, as for the theory of human relations, it is to pay greater attention to social factors at work, leadership, the informal organisation and behaviour of people. The basic tenets of the human relations school emerged from a group of studies during the late 1920s and 1930s known as the "Hawthorne Experiments." These experiments revealed that groups can have a powerful effect on the way organisations work and people did not always do what employers wanted, nor did they always act in a way that was considered rational﹙Roethlisberger and Dickson:1939﹚. Besides that, Douglas McGregor examined credited theories on behaviour of individuals at work and has formulated two models which calls Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X demonstrates that average person has an inherent dislike of work and people must be coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment whereas Theory Y claimed that physical and mental effort is as natural as play or rest and man will exercise self-direction for objectives to which he is committed.
Focusing on the similarities of the two theories, a significant point is that both of them consider increase productivity as ultimate goal. In addition, both believe in organizations as closed, changeless entities and they have discovered the one best way. Furthermore, human relations theory bears the same footprint of formal or instrumental rationality as that to be found in classical management. The last but not the least, both sought to control their teams even though one through human relationships while another one by avoiding human relationships. Even so, it should be pointed out that there are have some differences between them. Firstly, in Classical management theory, workers are regarded as "organizational machine" and motivated primarily by the prospect of high material reward. However, classical management theory embraces the idea that workers are not the kind of " economically motivated automatons " who are only pursue for money, but social people and have social psychological needs. Secondly, scientific managers were also accused of undermining individual initiative and freedom .By contrast, human relations was about ‘helping’ rather than exploiting the worker. Thirdly, According to Rose (2005) classical management is a kind of technical justification – that management made things more efficient whereas human relations a more ideological justification – that management helped to make things more humane. In this sense, human relations theory is about humanization as technique.Finally, classical management theory avoided ‘informal groups’, but the human relations movement supported
There is no denying that both theories exert profound influence of company’s management. For instance, McDonald Corporation takes the idea of classical management theory. Work force of McDonald Corporation is divided into different jobs. More exactly, probably divides employees up into chefs, people serving, people...