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Manmade Hazards Essay

1628 words - 7 pages

Lecture 8
Theme: Technogenic hazards.
Outline:
1 Technogenic emergencies and accidents
2 Transport accidents
3 Accidents on chemically hazardous objects (HHO)
4 Accidents at radiation hazardous objects (RHO)
5 Accidents on fire, explosion hazardous objects (FEHO)
6 Accidents on hydro-technical construction (HTC)
7 Electric shock

TECHNOGENIC EMERGENCIES AND ACCIDENTS
Technogenic (Anthropogenic) tmergensies - the situation in a certain area, established as a result of the accident, a major accident (crash) that resulted in the loss of life, damage to human health or the environment, considerable material losses and disruption of human living conditions.
Anthropogenic ...view middle of the document...

ACCIDENT ON CHEMICALLY HAZARDOUS OBJECTS (HHO)
Take place:
During the production, processing or storage (disposal) of hazardous chemicals (HCh);
In the transport sector;
Formation and distribution of HCh in the chemical reactions, which began as a result of the accident
Accident with chemical munitions (veapons)
Loss of HCh sources.
Chemically dangerous object (ChDO) - an object on which an accident can happen defeated people, farm animals and plants, or contamination of the environment by hazardous chemicals in concentrations or amounts that exceed the natural level of their content in nature.
By the scale of the consequences, the ChDO are divided into:
1) workplace - will affect one single workshop;
2) local - affected production site or sanitary protection zone;
3) general - the consequences go beyond the sanitary protection zone, with emergencies.
Generally, when the process equipment failures liquid toxic substances are released into the atmosphere in the form of gas, vapor or mist. Cloud can be spread over the long distances

By the degree of danger, accidents on CDO can be divided into:
1) Workplace - no accident of chemicals with little or leakage of toxic substances
2) Object - accidents involving toxic substances on less radius sanitary protection zone;
3) Local - with the destruction of a warehouse accident chemicals spread the affected areas to residential areas ;
4 ) Regional - accident with a significant release of chemicals and poisonous cloud spread deep into residential areas, and threatens the livelihoods of people in the region. There is an emergency on the scale of the region.
5) Global – full destroying of all HCh containers at large ChHO, threatens the livelihoods of people in some regions and countries, mobilization of the structures of Emergency Agency of MIA of RK
.

In a market economy, where there is a desire to reduce the cost of funding of various preventive measures on the Hoo (usually expensive), accidents can lead to great loss of life.

RADIOACTIVE FACILITIES (RAF)
RF - an enterprise in which accidents can occur when the release of radioactive products and ionizing radiation beyond the limits stipulated in the project (the border zones of the existing equipment.

7 CLASSES OF ACCIDENTS
7 Class - global: the destruction of the core, a significant release of radioactive substances (RS)
threat to the population more than the first of the country.
6 Class - the destruction of the core, the release of RS; evacuation of the population in an area of ​​25 km.
5 Class - with the risk of an accident for the environment: RS ejection, is necessary to protect the population.
4 Class - an accident within the AS, violation of the active core, exposure of personnel, causing acute radiation disease.
3 Class - serious accident: equipment failure, accompanied by high levels of radiation; exposure of personnel.
2 Class - an incident of moderate severity: equipment failure, endangering...

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