Adaptation of mangrove plants to the habitat
Mangroves are the habitat that the saline coastal habitats grow
with tree and shrubs. They are most common found in the tropics and
subtropics and also marks the transition between the sea , the estuary
and the land. Therefore most of the mangroves are in the brackish
water region and the salinity is relatively higher than the inland. The
tides in mangroves not only give a gentle gradient to the mangroves
but also affect the humidity of the soils periodically. Furthermore the
aerobic and anaerobic condition of the soil are also affected.
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Protected bays, lagoons and estuaries are the most suitable localities.
Mangroves grow best when the water is saline. Although mangroves exist in a saline environment, they depend on fresh water to maintain an optimum salinity balance and for the supply of additional inorganic nutrients that are present in terrestrial run-off.
Fertility and texture of the soil must be of sufficient quality to allow for the growth of vegetation communities and adequate soil drainage respectively.
Natural water movement through the mangrove wetland, whether tidal or rainwater run-off, has a great effect on modifying soil salinity, temperature and aeration.
The muddy shore consists of the very unstable soft substratum with high salinity and anaerobic soil brought by the tidal action
Due to this situation, mangroves have different adaptive features to compromise it
Many mangrove plants have salt glands on their leaves to remove the excess salts and the waxy cuticle to prevent excessive water loss
As the soil is usually waterlogged and under the anaerobic conditions many mangrove plants have aerial roots called Pneumatophores growing out of water from the cable roots for gas exchange with air
Some mangrove plants have prop plants and buttress roots to give better support on the soft mud and give additional surface to get oxygen from air for the roots
The cable root runs horizontally under the soil surface to give better anchorage to the plant
Unique reproductive method