Name: Adaeze Nwaorgu
REG. NO: 1223551
“Managing across culture”: how a manager should manage a team of staff from different cultural backgrounds
An over view of the international market has proven that cultural integration in the work place is becoming in today’s global economy, working with people from different cultures is becoming a standard. It brings various productivity and improved performance but great challenges, misunderstandings and conflicts might be introduced in an organization if not properly managed. The key to successful business lies in the managers’ ability to motivate their staff and to achieve this, an understanding of what drives their staff is ...view middle of the document...
Going from this argument, we can see masculine nations as more individualist and authoritative while feminine nations are more collectivist and bureaucratic. Furthermore, where masculine inclined countries would focus more on the internal operations, feminine countries would focus more on the customer. Kyoon Yoo et al. (2005; cited in Alessandra Vecchi &Louis Brennan, 2009, p.9).
There is a relationship between power distance and uncertainty avoidance. Flynn and Saladin (2006 cited in Alessandra Vecchi &Louis Brennan, 2009, p.4) it is argued that Countries with high uncertainty avoidance have emotional needs for rules and as such go well with high power distance where power is centralized in decision making on the other hand, countries with low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance level dislike formal rules and only set them when they deem necessary Alessandra Vecchi &Louis Brennan (2009)
In contrast, Snell and Hui (2000 cited in Alessandra Vecchi &Louis Brennan, 2009, p.4) sees individualistic countries as autonomous and confident, relying more on their own ideas while collectivist countries on the other hand depend more on information gathered from others to make a decision.
Generally speaking, people from different cultural backgrounds have different ideologies as to what entails a good leader or manager; they also have various understanding and reaction to situations in various ways Shaw (1990 cited in John, Marshall, Cigdem, 1980). A clear understanding of this will lead to better management of staff and an understanding of what motivates staff from various culture this in turn will boost productivity and performance.
DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT STYLES
There are two broad categories of management styles or techniques which are;
Personal domain which refers to Managerial leadership, this style sums up the usual management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and control. Under this form of management, different theories have been formulated and amended to become practicable in most countries some of which include
* P & M Theory; where the P is seen as “pressure” (to work hard), “Planning” (the work or know-how) and the M stands for “maintenance of work group team spirit, agreement and interpersonal bond”. For Chinese to adapt the PM theory, a third dimension C should be added where C stands for Moral Character as proposed by (Ling, Chen & Wang 1987; Peterson 1988).
J. B. P. Sinha in 1980 proposed the NT theory of India where N signified Nurturant style and T signified Task-oriented style, J. B. P. Sinha (1994 cited in John, Marshall, Cigdem, 1980).
Transactional leadership proposes PP which is: Planning and Pressure whereas transformational leadership supports MM which is: Maintenance, Model.
Impersonal domain which includes situational variables such as Participative management, team arrangement and reward schemes.
* Participative management: this line of research can be dated...