SCIENCE – is an orderly arrangement of knowledge and fact based on careful observation and experimentation.
MATHEMATICS - a branch of science dealing with finding plausible solution to certain irregular condition known as problem with the use of some quantitative techniques.
STATISTICS – branch of science dealing with the collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data with the use of some mathematical tools to arrive at a valid and reliable conclusion and/or generalization.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
Samples are preferred and/or ...view middle of the document...
Systematic Random Sampling – a method which utilizes the Kth element wherein samples are determined from the multiples of K
K = n = 286 = 3.496 =3.50 = 4: multiples of 4
5. Stratified Random Sampling - uses strata as categories of data
Year Level Ni Pi = Ni/N ni = n x Pi
1st 400 400/1000 =0.40 286x.40 =114
2nd 300 .30 286x.30 = 86
3rd 200 .20 286x.20 = 57
4th 100 .10 286 x.10 = 29
TOTAL 1000 1.00 286
6. Cluster Random Sampling - is employed in any study which involves large data or population from wide geographical location
Ex. Luzon – Visayas – Mindanao
7. Multi-Stage Random Sampling - extension of the cluster Random Sampling
Ex. Luzon – NCR – Makati - Large Enterprises - 100 years of existence – 100 Billion assets – success indicators
NOTE: The Larger or bigger the capital N, the larger or bigger the small n – more population = more samples
B) Nonprobability or Non-Random Sampling (NRS)
Not all members of the population have the equal chance to become part of the sample group.
1. Purposive NRS - according to the purpose, objective, or nature of the research undertaking
Ex. Nullification of the House of Legislators as Perceived by Large Corporations Business Leaders: Implications to Constitutional Dilemma
2. Quota NRS - according to predetermined number of samples respective of the criteria set by the researcher.
Ex. Success Stories of 10 lawyer- business entrepreneurs
3. Convenience NRS - according to the comfort or convenience of the research as the researcher gives the following conditions:
e. Safety and security
MODULE 1: BASIC CONCEPTS IN STATISTICS
1. Variable (rw. Vary) - any representation of any event, situation, phenomenon, object, or person defined in a set of characteristics
2. Dependent Variable (DV) – the “effect” or “output” variable whose value(s) depend on the input variable
3. Independent Variable (IV) – the “cause” or “input” variable whose values can be manipulated.
4. Extraneous/Exogenous/Moderating/Intervening Variable (EV) - variable which is basically not part of the original research, however, is found or suspected to affect and/or influence either the IV/DV.
5. Population (N) - the aggregate or totality of any variable respective of the point of reference.
6. Sample (n)¬ the fraction or portion of a population respective of a point of reference
7. Parameter – any value derived from the population data
8. Statistic - any value derived from the sample
9. Discrete variable - variable whose values are fixed and/or whole
10. Continuous Variable - variable whose values are infinite within a range of continuum
11. Measurement -the process of quantifying the qualitative characteristics of any variable
12. Levels or scales of Measurement
a. Nominal - categorical variable which uses coding or...