A digital signal is a physical signal that is a representation of a sequence of discrete values (a quantified discrete-time signal), for example of an arbitrary bit stream, or of a digitized (sampled and analog-to-digital converted) analog signal. The term digital signal can refer to either of the following:
any continuous-time waveform signal used in digital communication, representing a bit stream or other sequence of discrete values
a pulse train signal that switches between a discrete number of voltage levels or levels of light intensity, also known as a line coded signal or baseband transmission, for example a signal found in digital electronics or in serial communications, or a pulse ...view middle of the document...
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.
CDMA is an example of multiple access, which is where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). To permit this to be achieved without undue interference between the users CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code).
CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards such as cdmaOne, CDMA2000 (the 3G evolution of cdmaOne), and WCDMA (the 3G standard used by GSM carriers), which are often referred to as simply CDMA.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones. It became the de facto global standard for mobile communications with over 80% market share.
The GSM standard was developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and originally described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This was expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution or EGPRS).
Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the other, each using its own time slot. This allows multiple stations to share the same transmission medium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel capacity. TDMA is used in the digital 2G cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), IS-136, Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) and iDEN, and in the Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) standard for portable phones. It is also used extensively in satellite systems, combat-net radio systems, and PON networks for upstream traffic from premises to the operator. For usage of Dynamic TDMA packet mode communication, see below.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a palmtop computer, or personal data assistant, is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager. PDAs are largely considered obsolete with the widespread adoption of smartphones.
Nearly all current PDAs have the ability to connect to the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display, enabling it to include a web browser, all current models...