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Management Strategic Essay

1262 words - 6 pages

2.1 General Manager – Lebih dari Sekedar Perencana Strategi
General manajer suatu perusahaan adalah eksekutif yang berada di puncak perusahaan atau SBU dan yang bertanggung jawab atas kelangsungan hidup dan keberhasilan perusahaan. Mereka memegang jabatan seperti ketua (chairman), dewan komisaris, direktur utama perusahaan, wakil direktur senior, wakil direktur pelaksana dan wakil direktur. Kalau perusahaan itu dibagi menjadi unit bisnis strategis atau divisi operasi, maka orang yang mengepalai unit ini juga merupakan general manajer (GM).
Penelitian pada tahun 1976 tentang GM pada 500 perusahaan Amerika Serikat menyingkap profil sebagai berikut berdasarkan sifat – sifat yang paling ...view middle of the document...

Oleh karena itu, pemimpin industry tradisional lama telah digantikan oleh :
* Wiraswastawan teknologi tinggi (Steven Jobs, mantan dari Apple ; An Wang dari Wang Laboratories)
* Guru – guru jasa (Donald Burr dari People Express ; William McGowan dari MCI)
* Pembaharu perseroan (Lee Iacoca dari Chrysler ; John Welch dari General Electric)
* Pengocok Aktiva (T.Boone Pickens dari Mesa Limited Partners).
Orang – orang ini, dan lainnya yang sepertinya mereka, mempunyai dampak pada arah perusahaan, dan memberikan model peranan baru bagi eksekutif puncak dan general manajer lain. Mereka sering mendirikan perusahaan mereka sendiri, berada di garis depan dalam industry yang dideregulasi, menyelamatkan cerobong asap industry dengan meminjam keterampilan dan nilai – nilai dari wiraswastawan, atau mengalihkan aktiva – aktiva dan mengkonsolidasikan dasar ekonomi lama. Dalam masa transisi ekonomi, orang - orang baru seperti mereka muncul ke permukaan sebagai general manajer.

PERENCANA STRATEGI TINGKAT PERUSAHAAN
Dewan direksi dan eksekutif puncak (GM) adalah kelompok utama yang terlibat dalam penetapan strategi tingkat perseroan. Dalam kasus khusus pada tahap awal atau dalam perusahaan yang dimiliki keluarga, wiraswastanya adalah general manajer dan kepala perencana strategi
Dewan Komisaris dan Manajemen Strategis
Secara hukum wewenang tertinggi dalam perusahaan terletak di tangan dewan komisaris. Pda lembaga lainny, ialah dewan yang sejenis (misalnya dewan yayasan) yang mempunyai hak yang sama. Dewan ini bertanggung jawab pada pemegang saham untuk tugas berikut : menjamin kesinambungan manajemen (mengganti atau memberhentikan manajer yang tidak cakap); melingdungi penggunaan sumber daya pemegang saham; memastikan bahwa manajer mengambil tindakan yang bijaksana berkenaan dengan tujuan perusahaan ; menyetujui keputusan penting manajer berkenaan dengan soal keuangan dan operasi; mewakili perusahaan dalam organisasi dan badan lainnya dalam masyarakat; menjaga, mengubah dan memperkuat piagam dan peraturan rumah tangga perusahaan.
Secara hukum dewan komisaris berhak mengandalikan perusahaan dan merupakan inti yang berhubungan dengan upaya mempertahankan operasi dan efektivitas perusahaan. Dewan ini sering dianggap sebagai wakil para pemilik, jadi pengetahuan tentang operasi, ketajaman bisnis, dan perspektif industry merupakan syarat utama bagi para anggotanya.
Sampai tahun 1960, banyak dewan komisaris terdiri atas para manajer puncak. Tapi sekarang, telah banyak dewan yang menerima anggota dari luar perusahaan. Pada masa lampau, sebagian besar dewan ini tidak terlibat aktif dalam manajemen strategi perusahaan kecuali pada masa krisis, dimana tindakan utamanya ialah mengganti direktur utama. Sekarang, anggota dewan dari luar semakin aktif karena beberapa sebab, diantaranya adalah para pemegang saham semakin sering menggugat dewan komisaris karena kelalaiannya memenuhi tanggung jawab.
Dengan orang luar yang lebih aktif, semakin banyak...

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